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Open AccessArticle

Carbon Handprint: Potential Climate Benefits of a Novel Liquid-Cooled Base Station with Waste Heat Reuse

1
Lappeenranta-Lahti University of Technology LUT, P.O. Box 20, FI-53851 Lappeenranta, Finland
2
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Finland
3
Nokia Bell Labs, Karakaari 13, 02610 Espoo, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(23), 4452; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12234452
Received: 17 October 2019 / Revised: 18 November 2019 / Accepted: 19 November 2019 / Published: 22 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Life Cycle Assessment and Carbon Footprint in Energy Systems)
The novel life cycle assessment (LCA)-based carbon handprint indicator represents a potential carbon footprint reduction that producers/products create for customers who use the(ir) product instead of a baseline product. The research question is how to consider a situation in which multiple customers use a product for different purposes to provide a carbon handprint quantification and the associated communication. The study further provides new insight into the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction potential within the mobile telecommunications and energy sectors. The carbon handprint of a novel Finnish liquid-cooled base station technology is quantified. The liquid-cooled base station provides a telecommunications service and waste heat that is recoverable through the cooling liquid for heating purposes. The baseline solutions are an air-cooled base station, and district and electrical heating. The liquid-cooled base station creates a carbon handprint, both through energy savings in telecommunications and additional waste heat reuse, replacing other energy production methods. A large-scale climate change mitigation potential through a liquid-cooled base station expansion could be significant. Different supply chain operators’ contributions to the total carbon handprint could be terminologically distinguished in communications to emphasize their roles in a shared handprint. The handprint should be transparently communicated for each customer and function. View Full-Text
Keywords: handprint; carbon handprint; carbon footprint; life cycle assessment; LCA; base station; liquid cooling; waste heat reuse handprint; carbon handprint; carbon footprint; life cycle assessment; LCA; base station; liquid cooling; waste heat reuse
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kasurinen, H.; Vatanen, S.; Grönman, K.; Pajula, T.; Lakanen, L.; Salmela, O.; Soukka, R. Carbon Handprint: Potential Climate Benefits of a Novel Liquid-Cooled Base Station with Waste Heat Reuse. Energies 2019, 12, 4452. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12234452

AMA Style

Kasurinen H, Vatanen S, Grönman K, Pajula T, Lakanen L, Salmela O, Soukka R. Carbon Handprint: Potential Climate Benefits of a Novel Liquid-Cooled Base Station with Waste Heat Reuse. Energies. 2019; 12(23):4452. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12234452

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kasurinen, Heli; Vatanen, Saija; Grönman, Kaisa; Pajula, Tiina; Lakanen, Laura; Salmela, Olli; Soukka, Risto. 2019. "Carbon Handprint: Potential Climate Benefits of a Novel Liquid-Cooled Base Station with Waste Heat Reuse" Energies 12, no. 23: 4452. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12234452

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