Next Article in Journal
Potential for Rooftop-Mounted PV Power Generation to Meet Domestic Electrical Demand in Saudi Arabia: Case Study of a Villa in Jeddah
Next Article in Special Issue
Soybean Oil Transesterification for Biodiesel Production with Micro-Structured Calcium Oxide (CaO) from Natural Waste Materials as a Heterogeneous Catalyst
Previous Article in Journal
Assessing Evidence for Weather Regimes Governing Solar Power Generation in Kuwait
Previous Article in Special Issue
Preliminary Study on the Use of Biodiesel Obtained from Waste Vegetable Oils for Blending with Hydrotreated Kerosene Fossil Fuel Using Calcium Oxide (CaO) from Natural Waste Materials as Heterogeneous Catalyst
Open AccessReview

Biodiesel Production Processes and Sustainable Raw Materials

1
ADEQ, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa, R. Conselheiro Emídio Navarro, 1, 1959-007 Lisboa, Portugal
2
LAETA, IDMEC, CERENA, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(23), 4408; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12234408
Received: 16 October 2019 / Revised: 11 November 2019 / Accepted: 12 November 2019 / Published: 20 November 2019
Energy security and environmental concerns, related to the increasing carbon emissions, have prompted in the last years the search for renewable and sustainable fuels. Biodiesel, a mixture of fatty acids alkyl esters shows properties, which make it a feasible substitute for fossil diesel. Biodiesel can be produced using different processes and different raw materials. The most common, first generation, biodiesel is produced by methanolysis of vegetable oils using basic or acid homogeneous catalysts. The use of vegetable oils for biodiesel production raises serious questions about biodiesel sustainability. Used cooking oils and animal fats can replace the vegetable oils in biodiesel production thus allowing to produce a more sustainable biofuel. Moreover, methanol can be replaced by ethanol being totally renewable since it can be produced by biomass fermentation. The substitution of homogeneous catalyzed processes, nowadays used in the biodiesel industry, by heterogeneous ones can contribute to improve the biodiesel sustainability with simultaneous cost reduction. From the existing literature on biodiesel production, it stands out that several strategies can be adopted to improve the sustainability of biodiesel. A literature review is presented to underline the strategies allowing to improve the biodiesel sustainability. View Full-Text
Keywords: biodiesel; sustainability; vegetable oils; animal fats; methanolysis; ethanolysis biodiesel; sustainability; vegetable oils; animal fats; methanolysis; ethanolysis
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ramos, M.; Dias, A.P.S.; Puna, J.F.; Gomes, J.; Bordado, J.C. Biodiesel Production Processes and Sustainable Raw Materials. Energies 2019, 12, 4408.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop