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Article

Preliminary Study on the Use of Biodiesel Obtained from Waste Vegetable Oils for Blending with Hydrotreated Kerosene Fossil Fuel Using Calcium Oxide (CaO) from Natural Waste Materials as Heterogeneous Catalyst

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Kocaeli Üniversitesi Umuttepe Yerleşkesi, 41380 Kocaeli, Turkey
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Área Departamental de Engenharia Química, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa, R. Conselheiro Emídio Navarro 1, 1959-007 Lisboa, Portugal
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CERENA—Centro de Recursos Naturais e Ambiente, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(22), 4306; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12224306
Received: 23 September 2019 / Revised: 4 November 2019 / Accepted: 7 November 2019 / Published: 12 November 2019
In this experimental work, calcium from natural seafood wastes was used as a heterogeneous catalyst separately or in a blend of “shell mix” for producing biodiesel. Several chemical reaction runs were conducted at varied reaction times ranging from 30 min to 8 h, at 60 °C, with a mass content of 5% (Wcat./Woil) and a methanol/oil molar ratio of 12. After the purification process, the biodiesel with fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) weight content measured was higher than 99%, which indicated that it was a pure biodiesel. This work also showed that the inorganic solid waste shell mixture used as the heterogeneous catalyst can be reused three times and the reused mixture still resulted in a FAME content higher than 99%. After 40 different transesterification reactions were performed using liquid (waste cooking oils) and solid (calcium seafood shells) wastes for producing biodiesel, under the specific conditions stated above, we found a successful, innovative, and promising way to produce biodiesel. In addition, blends prepared with jet fuel A1 and biodiesel were recorded with no invalid results after certain tests, at 25 °C. In this case, except for the 10% blend, the added biodiesel had no significant effect on the viscosity (fluidity) of the biojet fuel. View Full-Text
Keywords: biodiesel; seafood inorganic wastes; calcium oxide; transesterification; hydrotreated kerosene; heterogeneous catalysis biodiesel; seafood inorganic wastes; calcium oxide; transesterification; hydrotreated kerosene; heterogeneous catalysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ozkan, S.; Puna, J.F.; Gomes, J.F.; Cabrita, T.; Palmeira, J.V.; Santos, M.T. Preliminary Study on the Use of Biodiesel Obtained from Waste Vegetable Oils for Blending with Hydrotreated Kerosene Fossil Fuel Using Calcium Oxide (CaO) from Natural Waste Materials as Heterogeneous Catalyst. Energies 2019, 12, 4306. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12224306

AMA Style

Ozkan S, Puna JF, Gomes JF, Cabrita T, Palmeira JV, Santos MT. Preliminary Study on the Use of Biodiesel Obtained from Waste Vegetable Oils for Blending with Hydrotreated Kerosene Fossil Fuel Using Calcium Oxide (CaO) from Natural Waste Materials as Heterogeneous Catalyst. Energies. 2019; 12(22):4306. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12224306

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ozkan, S., J. F. Puna, J. F. Gomes, T. Cabrita, J. V. Palmeira, and M. T. Santos. 2019. "Preliminary Study on the Use of Biodiesel Obtained from Waste Vegetable Oils for Blending with Hydrotreated Kerosene Fossil Fuel Using Calcium Oxide (CaO) from Natural Waste Materials as Heterogeneous Catalyst" Energies 12, no. 22: 4306. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12224306

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