Creating Statistics for China’s Building Energy Consumption Using an Adapted Energy Balance Sheet
- Sampling surveys . Surveys are widely applied to get detailed information on building energy demand. However, it is costly and impossible for surveys to cover all buildings. Therefore sampling surveys are applied. The scale of the survey depends on the resources and complete data of building energy demand at the sector level is calculated, based on the survey results and estimated total floor areas of all types of buildings.
- Statistics for defined-scale and defined-type buildings [9,10,11,12]. This method builds on building energy consumption statistics that are applied for defined-scale buildings (e.g., with a floor area of more than 10.000 m2) and defined-type buildings (public buildings), and statistics gathered by local statistics departments. Total building energy consumption can therefore be estimated by using the statistical data.
- Modelling [6,13,14,15]. Modelling is widely used by academic institutes for estimating energy consumption at the sector level. Models are developed based on building types and building stocks, building age, characters of climate zones, and total floor areas of each type of buildings in each of China’s climate zones.
- EBS together with expert approach [16,17,18]. In the EBS of IEA and other developed countries, energy consumption data is collected for the three main sectors of industrial, transportation and buildings, and thus data of building energy consumption is available from the EBS database. However, building energy consumption data in China’s EBS is divided into the different sectors of industries, transportation, consumptions and others. Thus getting building energy consumption data from China’s EBS needs additional work that may be done by professional energy analysts and therefore the EBS together with expert approach is applied to gather building energy consumption data.
- Developing and testing a method that is adapted from China’s existing EBS. This method is applied to calculate China building energy consumption at the sector level.
- Comparing the calculated results of this research with other sources and evaluating what the differences are between this research and other similar researches.
- Comparing the energy consumption of China’s commercial (so-called public buildings in China), urban residential and rural residential buildings by the calculated results of this research for the period of 2001–2015.
- Analyzing building energy demand against economic growth to gain insights on differences of energy demand in industrial and building sectors.
- Comparing China’s building energy demand with international practices, in particular with the USA, European Union and Japan.
- Recommending how China could build up its building energy consumption statistical system by applying the adapted EBS.
2.1. Procedures and Methods of This Research
2.2. Data Collection and Analysis
3.1. China Building Energy Consumption 2001–2015
3.2. Energy Consumption of Building Types in China
3.3. China Building Energy Consumption Against Economic Growth
3.4. China Building Energy Consumption: an International Comparison
- The building energy statistics by adapted EBS covers all types of buildings (commercial and residential buildings and multi-functions buildings that are used by sectors of industry, transportation and others), and it provides reliable, detailed and complete data on energy demand in China’s building sector. Based on EBS data, this method can be included in regular energy statistical system and can be standardized in a transparent way. Thus data generated by this method will ensure the international, national and regional comparisons and benchmarking of building energy demand.
- Data comparison between this research and the existing most adopted China Building Energy Model (CBEM) shows no significant differences. We therefore suggest that both methods can be used for cross-checking to build up China statistics of building energy consumption.
- Both total energy consumption and building energy consumption have increased by about 7.6% in China since 2001. However the growth rate of total energy consumption is slowing down and annual growth of building energy consumption has been stabilized, although total building floor area is increasing by about 4%. Decoupling of building energy consumption with increasing of building floor area is due to the improvement of building energy efficiency.
- The energy consumption of public buildings accounts for a 37%–41% share of the total building energy consumption, residential buildings represent 36%–39% and rural residential buildings have a 23%–25% share in China. The energy intensity of commercial buildings is the highest compared to urban and rural residential buildings and the energy intensity of urban residential buildings is almost double that of rural residential buildings in China. This is completely different from the situation in Europe, where the energy efficiency of rural households is always higher than in urban households . This research concludes that there are tremendous differences in the building energy efficiency of rural buildings between China and Europe, since building energy efficiency solutions are less developed in rural China [24,25,26,27].
- Building energy consumption and industrial energy consumption features are different. Building energy consumption is driven by lifestyle and living standards. However, industrial energy consumption is mainly driven by market and economic activities. Therefore, a higher GDP growth results in an increased share of industrial energy consumption and a decreased share of building energy consumption.
- China’s building energy consumption has less of a contribution to the total energy demand, as compared to that of the developed world. This shows that China industrialization is still playing a more important role in the energy demand, while consumption and transportation sectors have more of a contribution to the total energy demand in the developed world.
Conflicts of Interest
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|Average annual growth of China total energy consumption||13.9%||5.9%||2.7%|
|Average annual growth of China total building energy consumption||11.9%||5.3%||5.5%|
|Year||This Research||CBEM ||Difference|
|Building Types||This Study||CBEM||Difference|
|Urban residential building||1.85||1.99||7.0%|
|Rural residential building||1.97||2.13||7.5%|
|Northern China heating||1.93||1.91||–1%|
|Total energy consumption||1913.0||1519.0||1042.5||577.6||456.9||291.3||6929|
|Building energy consumption||393.0||469.0||364.8||213.2||150.7||95.1||2807|
|Share of building energy consumption||20.5%||30.9%||35.0%||36.9%||33.0%||32.6%||40.5%|
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Zhang, M.; Ge, X.; Zhao, Y.; Xia-Bauer, C. Creating Statistics for China’s Building Energy Consumption Using an Adapted Energy Balance Sheet. Energies 2019, 12, 4293. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12224293
Zhang M, Ge X, Zhao Y, Xia-Bauer C. Creating Statistics for China’s Building Energy Consumption Using an Adapted Energy Balance Sheet. Energies. 2019; 12(22):4293. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12224293Chicago/Turabian Style
Zhang, Mingshun, Xuan Ge, Ya Zhao, and Chun Xia-Bauer. 2019. "Creating Statistics for China’s Building Energy Consumption Using an Adapted Energy Balance Sheet" Energies 12, no. 22: 4293. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12224293