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Article

HVAC-Based Cooperative Algorithms for Demand Side Management in a Microgrid

by 1, 1,* and 2
1
Department of Engineering, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YW, UK
2
Lancaster Environment Center, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YW, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(22), 4276; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12224276
Received: 16 September 2019 / Revised: 25 October 2019 / Accepted: 31 October 2019 / Published: 9 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section A1: Smart Grids and Microgrids)
The high penetration of renewable power generators and various loads have brought a great challenge for dispatching energy in a microgrid system. Heating ventilation air conditioning (HVAC) system, as a household appliance with high popularity, can be considered as an effective technology to alleviate energy dispatch issues. This paper presents novel distributed algorithms based on HVAC to solve the demand side management problem, where the microgrid system with HVAC units is considered as a multi-agent system (MAS). The approach provides a desirable operating frequency signal for each HVAC based on the power mismatch value occurring on each local bus. It utilizes demand response of the HVAC units to minimize the supply-demand mismatch, thus reducing the quantity and capacity of energy storage devices potentially to be required. Compared with existing approaches focusing on the distributed algorithms under a fixed communication network, this paper addresses a consensus problem under a switching topology by using the Lyapunov argument. It is verified that a jointly strong and connected topology is a sufficient condition in order to achieve an average consensus for a time-varying topology. A number of cases are studied to evaluate the effectiveness of the algorithms by taking into account its power constraints, dynamic behaviors, anti-damage characteristics and time-varying communication topology. Modelling these system interactions has demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed microgrid system. View Full-Text
Keywords: demand side management; HVAC (heating ventilation air conditioning); distributed algorithm; multi-agent system; microgrid demand side management; HVAC (heating ventilation air conditioning); distributed algorithm; multi-agent system; microgrid
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ma, J.; Ma, X.; Ilic, S. HVAC-Based Cooperative Algorithms for Demand Side Management in a Microgrid. Energies 2019, 12, 4276. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12224276

AMA Style

Ma J, Ma X, Ilic S. HVAC-Based Cooperative Algorithms for Demand Side Management in a Microgrid. Energies. 2019; 12(22):4276. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12224276

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ma, Jie, Xiandong Ma, and Suzana Ilic. 2019. "HVAC-Based Cooperative Algorithms for Demand Side Management in a Microgrid" Energies 12, no. 22: 4276. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12224276

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