The high penetration of renewable power generators and various loads have brought a great challenge for dispatching energy in a microgrid system. Heating ventilation air conditioning (HVAC) system, as a household appliance with high popularity, can be considered as an effective technology to alleviate energy dispatch issues. This paper presents novel distributed algorithms based on HVAC to solve the demand side management problem, where the microgrid system with HVAC units is considered as a multi-agent system (MAS). The approach provides a desirable operating frequency signal for each HVAC based on the power mismatch value occurring on each local bus. It utilizes demand response of the HVAC units to minimize the supply-demand mismatch, thus reducing the quantity and capacity of energy storage devices potentially to be required. Compared with existing approaches focusing on the distributed algorithms under a fixed communication network, this paper addresses a consensus problem under a switching topology by using the Lyapunov argument. It is verified that a jointly strong and connected topology is a sufficient condition in order to achieve an average consensus for a time-varying topology. A number of cases are studied to evaluate the effectiveness of the algorithms by taking into account its power constraints, dynamic behaviors, anti-damage characteristics and time-varying communication topology. Modelling these system interactions has demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed microgrid system.
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