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Open AccessArticle

Brazil Offshore Wind Resources and Atmospheric Surface Layer Stability

1
Centro de Ciências Físicas e Matemáticas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Oceanografia, Campus Trindade, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC 88010-970, Brazil
2
Campus Universitário Lagoa Nova, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN 59078-970, Brazil
3
Instituto de Recursos Naturais, Universidade Federal de Itajubá, Av. BPS 1303, Pinheirinho, Itajubá, MG 37500-903, Brazil
4
Centro Tecnológico, Departamento de Engenharia de Eletricidade, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, Av. dos Portugueses s/n, Bacanga, São Luís, MA 65080-040, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Serra Talhada, PE 56909-535, Brazil.
Energies 2019, 12(21), 4195; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12214195
Received: 17 September 2019 / Revised: 29 October 2019 / Accepted: 31 October 2019 / Published: 3 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Wind, Wave and Tidal Energy)
Brazil’s offshore wind resources are evaluated from satellite winds and ocean heat flux datasets. Winds are extrapolated to the height of modern turbines accounting for atmospheric stability. Turbine technical data are combined with wind and bathymetric information for description of the seasonal and latitudinal variability of wind power. Atmospheric conditions vary from unstable situations in the tropics, to neutral and slightly stable conditions in the subtropics. Cabo Frio upwelling in the southeast tends to promote slightly stable conditions during the spring and summer. Likewise, Plata plume cold-water intrusions in southern shelf tends to create neutral to slightly stable situations during the fall and winter. Unstable (stable) conditions are associated with weaker (stronger) vertical wind shear. Wind technical resource, accounting for atmospheric stability and air density distribution, is 725 GW between 0–35 m, 980 GW for 0–50 m, 1.3 TW for 0–100 m and 7.2 TW for the Brazilian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Resources might vary from 2 to 23% according to the chosen turbine. Magnitudes are 20% lower than previous estimates that considered neutral atmosphere conditions. Strong winds are observed on the north (AP, PA), northeast (MA, PI, CE, RN), southeast (ES, RJ) and southern states (SC, RS). There is significant seasonal complementarity between the north and northeast shelves. When accounting for shelf area, the largest integrated resource is located on the north shelf between 0–20 m. Significant resources are also found in the south for deeper waters. View Full-Text
Keywords: offshore wind power; satellite winds; Monin–Obukhov; Brazil; atmospheric stability; Exclusive Economic Zone offshore wind power; satellite winds; Monin–Obukhov; Brazil; atmospheric stability; Exclusive Economic Zone
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Pimenta, F.M.; Silva, A.R.; Assireu, A.T.; Almeida, V.S.; Saavedra, O.R. Brazil Offshore Wind Resources and Atmospheric Surface Layer Stability. Energies 2019, 12, 4195.

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