Next Article in Journal
Energy and Efficiency Evaluation of Feedback Branch Design in Thermoacoustic Stirling-Like Engines
Previous Article in Journal
Behaviour of Distribution Grids with the Highest PV Share Using the Volt/Var Control Chain Strategy
Open AccessArticle

Solid Particles in Natural Gas from a Transportation Network: A Chemical Composition Study

1
CNRS/Univ Pau & Pays Adour/E2S UPPA, Institut des Sciences Analytiques et de Physico-Chimie pour L’Environnement et les Matériaux, UMR5254, Helioparc-2 Avenue du Président Angot, 64000 Pau, France
2
CNRS/Total/Univ Pau & Pays Adour/E2S UPPA, LFCR-IPRA UMR 5150, 64000 Pau, France
3
Teréga, 40 Avenue de l’Europe CS 20 522, 64010 Pau CEDEX, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(20), 3866; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12203866
Received: 13 September 2019 / Revised: 5 October 2019 / Accepted: 9 October 2019 / Published: 12 October 2019
This paper aims to provide the elemental composition of particles found in natural gas. Particle sampling is performed on cellulose filters obtained from an industrial gas storage facility, and the qualitative particle composition is determined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Our results establish that natural gas may contain solid particles, with sizes ranging from less than 1 μm to more than 50 μm. The observed particles are composed of numerous elements, such as aluminum (Al), silica (Si), sulphur (S), chloride (Cl), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), sodium (Na), manganese (Mg), calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), titanium (Ti), nickel (Ni), vanadium (V), potassium (K), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), silver (Ag), cobalt (Co), iodine (I), and barium (Ba), with relative occurrences ranging from 1 to 85%. Moreover, metallic elements enable the formation of larger particles as a result of the agglomeration of smaller particles. View Full-Text
Keywords: gas; characterization; solid particles; chemical composition gas; characterization; solid particles; chemical composition
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Cachia, M.; Carrier, H.; Bouyssiere, B.; Le Coustumer, P.; Chiquet, P.; Caumette, G.; Le Hécho, I. Solid Particles in Natural Gas from a Transportation Network: A Chemical Composition Study. Energies 2019, 12, 3866.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop