Next Article in Journal
Axisymmetric Numerical Investigation on Steam Bubble Condensation
Next Article in Special Issue
Optimization Design of Injection Strategy for Surfactant-Polymer Flooding Process in Heterogeneous Reservoir under Low Oil Prices
Previous Article in Journal
Bidirectional Power Flow Control of a Multi Input Converter for Energy Storage System
Previous Article in Special Issue
Morphology and Rheological Properties of Polyacrylamide/Bentonite Organic Crosslinking Composite Gel
Open AccessArticle

Polymer Gels Made with Functionalized Organo-Silica Nanomaterials for Conformance Control

1
Deptment of Geoscience and Petroleum, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7031 Trondheim, Norway
2
Deptment of Mathematical Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7034 Trondheim, Norway
3
Petroleum Department, SINTEF Industry, 7031 Trondheim, Norway
4
Materials and Nanotechnology Department, SINTEF Industry, 0373 Oslo, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(19), 3758; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12193758
Received: 12 September 2019 / Revised: 23 September 2019 / Accepted: 27 September 2019 / Published: 30 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enhanced Oil Recovery 2020)
Deep placement of gel in waterflooded hydrocarbon reservoirs may block channels with high water flow and may divert the water into other parts of the reservoir, resulting in higher oil production. In order to get the gel constituents to the right reservoir depths, a delay in the gelling time in the order of weeks at elevated temperatures will be necessary. In this work, a methodology for controlled gelation of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide using hybrid nanomaterials with functional groups as cross-linkers was developed. Two delay mechanisms with hybrid materials and polyelectrolyte complexes were designed and tested. Both mechanisms could significantly delay the gelation rate, giving gelling times ranging from several days to several weeks in synthetic sea water at 80 °C. Gelling experiments in sandstone cores showed that gel strength increased with aging time. For long aging times, strong gels were formed which resulted in almost no water permeability. A series of coreflooding experiments with polymer and deactivated nanomaterial were performed. In addition to differential pressures and concentration profiles, the experiments enabled calculation of retention and inaccessible pore volumes. A novel numerical model of 1D two-phase flow has been developed and tested with results from core flooding experiments. The model can track the age distribution and concentrations of the nanomaterial (and therefore water viscosity) throughout the porous medium at every time step. The model generated a good fit of experimental results. View Full-Text
Keywords: functional nanomaterials; porous media; enhanced oil recovery; delayed gelation; polyelectrolyte complexes functional nanomaterials; porous media; enhanced oil recovery; delayed gelation; polyelectrolyte complexes
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Najafiazar, B.; Wessel-Berg, D.; Bergmo, P.E.; Simon, C.R.; Yang, J.; Torsæter, O.; Holt, T. Polymer Gels Made with Functionalized Organo-Silica Nanomaterials for Conformance Control. Energies 2019, 12, 3758. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12193758

AMA Style

Najafiazar B, Wessel-Berg D, Bergmo PE, Simon CR, Yang J, Torsæter O, Holt T. Polymer Gels Made with Functionalized Organo-Silica Nanomaterials for Conformance Control. Energies. 2019; 12(19):3758. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12193758

Chicago/Turabian Style

Najafiazar, Bahador; Wessel-Berg, Dag; Bergmo, Per E.; Simon, Christian R.; Yang, Juan; Torsæter, Ole; Holt, Torleif. 2019. "Polymer Gels Made with Functionalized Organo-Silica Nanomaterials for Conformance Control" Energies 12, no. 19: 3758. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12193758

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop