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Open AccessArticle

Modeling of a PCM TES Tank Used as an Alternative Heat Sink for a Water Chiller. Analysis of Performance and Energy Savings

1
Department of Mathematics, Universidad Cardenal Herrera-CEU, CEU Universities, Physics and Technological Sciences. C/San Bartolomé, 55, 46115 Alfara del Patriarca, Valencia, Spain
2
ISTENER Research Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Construction, Universitat Jaume I, Campus de Riu Sec s/n, E12071 Castelló de la Plana, Spain
3
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, 84084 Fisciano (SA), Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(19), 3652; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12193652
Received: 30 July 2019 / Revised: 14 September 2019 / Accepted: 19 September 2019 / Published: 24 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Refrigeration Systems and Applications)
Phase change materials (PCMs) can be used in refrigeration systems to redistribute the thermal load. The main advantages of the overall system are a more stable energy performance, energy savings, and the use of the off-peak electric tariff. This paper proposes, models, tests, and analyzes an experimental water vapor compression chiller connected to a PCM thermal energy storage (TES) tank that acts as an alternative heat sink. First, the transient model of the chiller-PCM system is proposed and validated through experimental data directly measured from a test bench where the PCM TES tank is connected to a vapor compression-based chiller. A maximum deviation of 1.2 °C has been obtained between the numerical and experimental values of the PCM tank water outlet temperature. Then, the validated chiller-PCM system model is used to quantify (using the coefficient of performance, COP) and to analyze its energy performance and its dependence on the ambient temperature. Moreover, electrical energy saving curves are calculated for different ambient temperature profiles, reaching values between 5% and 15% taking the experimental system without PCM as a baseline. Finally, the COP of the chiller-PCM system is calculated for different temperatures and use scenarios, and it is compared with the COP of a conventional aerothermal chiller to determine the switch ambient temperature values for which the former provides energy savings over the latter. View Full-Text
Keywords: phase change material; thermal energy storage; vapor compression system; HVAC; energy efficiency phase change material; thermal energy storage; vapor compression system; HVAC; energy efficiency
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MDPI and ACS Style

Real-Fernández, A.; Navarro-Esbrí, J.; Mota-Babiloni, A.; Barragán-Cervera, Á.; Domenech, L.; Sánchez, F.; Maiorino, A.; Aprea, C. Modeling of a PCM TES Tank Used as an Alternative Heat Sink for a Water Chiller. Analysis of Performance and Energy Savings. Energies 2019, 12, 3652.

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