Large-surface radiant heating ceiling systems favor energy-efficient solutions on the heat generation side because of the relatively low temperature of the heat transfer medium. Additionally, their application in the renovation of existing buildings is relatively uncomplicated and requires minimal changes to the building’s construction. However, ASHRAE Standard-55 and former studies by Fanger indicated that among large-surface radiant systems, the highest percentage of dissatisfaction for an equal radiant temperature asymmetry (RTA) was reported for a warm ceiling. The maximum RTA of 4 K corresponding to 5% of dissatisfaction was suggested. In the first part of our study (subjective experiments), we have suggested the RTA of about 7.4 K if occupants have winter clothing (Safizadeh et al., 2018). However, former studies tested radiant ceiling systems at different temperatures in “neutral conditions” with a constant operative temperature, which rarely occurs in reality. Accordingly, the goal of this study is to evaluate the potential application of low-temperature radiant heating ceilings in a building with low- and high-performance facades using steady-state simulations with a coupled CFD–thermal comfort model and transient simulations using TRNSYS. Forty combinations of simulation scenarios including six ceiling surface temperatures (20 °C, 25 °C, 28 °C, 33 °C, 38 °C, and 45 °C), two low- and high-performance facades, two rooms with one and two facades, and distances of 1 m and 3 m to the window were examined. The findings of this research show that the supply water temperatures between 28–45 °C from a heat pump are ideal for a building with a high-performance façade. Additionally, the results suggest that ceiling temperatures as low as 20–25 °C in renovated buildings and 25–28 °C in a building with low-performance facades can provide optimal thermal sensations at most body parts. This study also proves that the PMV comfort model (Predicted Mean Vote index) is not at all a suitable model for the evaluation of radiant heating systems (especially if occupants have winter clothes), even if the air/operative temperature distribution near an occupant is uniform.
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