Next Article in Journal
The Role of Supercapacitors in Regenerative Braking Systems
Previous Article in Journal
Scaling of Pulverized-Fuel Jet Flames That Apply Large Amounts of Excess Air—Implications for NOx Formation
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Failure Rates of Offshore Wind Transmission Systems

Electronic & Electrical Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Royal College Building, 204 George St, Glasgow G1 1XW, UK
Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, University Road, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK
Generating Better Ltd., Workington CA14 4TP, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(14), 2682;
Received: 13 May 2019 / Revised: 25 June 2019 / Accepted: 2 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
PDF [789 KB, uploaded 12 July 2019]


In the offshore wind industry, failures are often costlier than those experienced onshore. Through examination of the literature, it is clear that failures occurring in offshore transmission systems are not well documented. As a result of this, many developers and other parties involved in the planning processes associated with offshore wind farms will defer back to existing reliability metrics in the public domain. This article presents a review of European offshore wind farm transmission failures based on fusing information from multiple public domain sources. The results highlight both the spread of the reliability performance of these assets and the reliability performance over time. The results also reinforce the industry view that installation practices could lead to low reliability in the initial years of operation, resulting in increased repair costs and decreased revenue for wind farm owners and operators. The information collated in the review is also compared to metrics from across the literature to evaluate the difference in forecasted failure rates to those experienced within the industry. In general, it is found that the experienced failure rates are subject to a much higher spread in practice than those published until now.
Keywords: wind; offshore; transmission; reliability wind; offshore; transmission; reliability
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Warnock, J.; McMillan, D.; Pilgrim, J.; Shenton, S. Failure Rates of Offshore Wind Transmission Systems. Energies 2019, 12, 2682.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top