Next Article in Journal
CFD Simulation of Defogging Effectivity in Automotive Headlamp
Next Article in Special Issue
Reliability-Based Serviceability Limit State Design of a Jacket Substructure for an Offshore Wind Turbine
Previous Article in Journal
A Comparative Study on Primary Bearing Rating Life of a 5-MW Two-Blade Wind Turbine System Based on Two Different Control Domains
Previous Article in Special Issue
Coupled Motion Characteristics of Offshore Wind Turbines during the Integrated Transportation Process
Article Menu
Issue 13 (July-1) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

A Simulation of Non-Simultaneous Ice Crushing Force for Wind Turbine Towers with Large Slopes

School of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003, China
State Key Laboratory of Hydraulic Engineering Simulation and Safety, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China
State Key Laboratory of Coast and Offshore Engineering, Deepwater Engineering Research Center, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(13), 2608;
Received: 24 May 2019 / Revised: 26 June 2019 / Accepted: 29 June 2019 / Published: 7 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Offshore Wind Technology)
PDF [10817 KB, uploaded 9 July 2019]


When the offshore wind energy industry attempts to develop in cold regions, ice load becomes the main technological challenge for offshore wind turbine foundation design. Dynamic ice loads acting on wind turbine foundations should be calculated in a reasonable way. The scope of this study is to present a numerical model that considers the non-simultaneous ice crushing failure acting on the vertical structure of a wind turbine’s foundation. The local ice crushing force at the contact surface between the ice sheet and structure is calculated. The boundary of the ice sheet is updated at each time step based on the indentation length of the ice sheet according to its structure. Ice loads are validated against two model tests with three different structure models developed by other researchers. The time series of the ice forces derived from the simulation and model tests are compared. The proposed numerical model can capture the main trends of ice–wind turbine foundation interaction. The simulation results agree well with measured data from the model tests in terms of maximum ice force, which is a key factor for wind turbine design. The proposed model will be helpful for assisting the initial design of wind turbine foundations in cold regions. View Full-Text
Keywords: crushing; icebreaking; wind turbine; cone crushing; icebreaking; wind turbine; cone

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhou, L.; Ding, S.; Song, M.; Gao, J.; Shi, W. A Simulation of Non-Simultaneous Ice Crushing Force for Wind Turbine Towers with Large Slopes. Energies 2019, 12, 2608.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top