Particles in transformer oil are harmful to the operation of transformers, which can lead to the occurrence of partial discharge and even breakdown. More and more researchers are becoming interested in investigating the effects of particles on the performance of insulation oil. In this paper, a simulation method is provided to explore the motion mechanism and accumulation characteristics of different particles. This is utilized to explain the effects of particle properties on the breakdown strength of mineral oil. Experiments on particle accumulation under DC voltage as well as DC breakdown were carried out. The simulation results are in agreement with the experimental results. Having a DC electrical field with a sufficient accumulation time and initial concentration are advantageous for particle accumulation. Properties of impurities determine the bridge shape, conductivity characteristics, and variation law of DC breakdown voltages. Metal particles and mixed particles play more significant roles in the increase of current and electrical field distortion. It is noteworthy that cellulose particles along with metal particles cannot have superposition influences on changing conductivity characteristics and the electrical field distortion of mineral oil. The range of electrical field distortion is enlarged as the particle concentration increases. Changes in the electrical field distribution and an increase in conductivity collectively affect the DC breakdown strength of mineral oil.
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