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Open AccessArticle

Current Status Investigation and Predicting Carbon Dioxide Emission in Latin American Countries by Connectionist Models

1
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood 3619995161, Iran
2
Department of Renewable Energies and Environmental, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran 1439957131, Iran
3
Institute for Manufacturing, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FS, UK
4
Department for Management of Science and Technology Development, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
5
Faculty of Information Technology, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Energies 2019, 12(10), 1916; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12101916
Received: 24 March 2019 / Revised: 3 May 2019 / Accepted: 6 May 2019 / Published: 19 May 2019
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Abstract

Currently, one of the biggest concerns of human beings is greenhouse gas emissions, especially carbon dioxide emissions in developed and under-developed countries. In this study, connectionist models including LSSVM (Least Square Support Vector Machine) and evolutionary methods are employed for predicting the amount of CO 2 emission in six Latin American countries, i.e., Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Peru, Chile, Venezuela and Uruguay. The studied region is modelled based on the available input data in terms of million tons including oil (million tons), gas (million tons oil equivalent), coal (million tons oil equivalent), R e w (million tons oil equivalent) and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in terms of billion U.S. dollars. Moreover, the available patents in the field of climate change mitigation in six Latin American countries, namely Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Peru, Chile, Venezuela and Uruguay, have been reviewed and analysed. The results show that except Venezuela, all other mentioned countries have invested in renewable energy R&D activities. Brazil and Argentina have the highest share of renewable energies, which account for 60% and 72%, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: CO2; modelling; environment; South America; connectionist model CO2; modelling; environment; South America; connectionist model
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Ahmadi, M.H.; Dehghani Madvar, M.; Sadeghzadeh, M.; Rezaei, M.H.; Herrera, M.; Shamshirband, S. Current Status Investigation and Predicting Carbon Dioxide Emission in Latin American Countries by Connectionist Models. Energies 2019, 12, 1916.

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