Next Article in Journal
Robust Design Optimization with Penalty Function for Electric Oil Pumps with BLDC Motors
Previous Article in Journal
A Combined Study of TEM-EDS/XPS and Molecular Modeling on the Aging of THPP, ZPP, and BKNO3 Explosive Charges in PMDs under Accelerated Aging Conditions
Previous Article in Special Issue
System Design and Energy Management for a Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Forklift
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January-1) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Energies 2019, 12(1), 152;

Fault Characterization of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Stack

Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, 9220 Aalborg Øst, Denmark
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 December 2018 / Revised: 27 December 2018 / Accepted: 31 December 2018 / Published: 2 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fuel Cell Systems Design and Control)
Full-Text   |   PDF [713 KB, uploaded 3 January 2019]   |  


In this paper, the main faults in a commercial proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack for micro-combined heat and power ( μ -CHP) application are investigated, with the scope of experimentally identifying fault indicators for diagnosis purposes. The tested faults were reactant starvation (both fuel and oxidant), flooding, drying, CO poisoning, and H2S poisoning. Galvanostatic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were recorded between 2 kHz and 0.1 Hz on a commercial stack of 46 cells of a 100- cm 2 active area each. The results, obtained through distribution of relaxation time (DRT) analysis of the EIS data, show that characteristic peaks of the DRT and their changes with the different fault intensity levels can be used to extract the features of the tested faults. It was shown that flooding and drying present features on the opposite ends of the frequency spectrum due the effect of drying on the membrane conductivity and the blocking effect of flooding that constricts the reactants’ flow. Moreover, it was seen that while the effect of CO poisoning is limited to high frequency processes, above 100 Hz, the effects of H2S extend to below 10 Hz. Finally, the performance degradation due to all the tested faults, including H2S poisoning, is recoverable to a great extent, implying that condition correction after fault detection can contribute to prolonged lifetime of the fuel cell. View Full-Text
Keywords: fuel cells; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; distribution of relaxation times; fault; diagnosis fuel cells; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; distribution of relaxation times; fault; diagnosis

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Simon Araya, S.; Zhou, F.; Lennart Sahlin, S.; Thomas, S.; Jeppesen, C.; Knudsen Kær, S. Fault Characterization of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Stack. Energies 2019, 12, 152.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top