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Energies 2018, 11(9), 2340; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11092340

Primary Frequency Controller with Prediction-Based Droop Coefficient for Wind-Storage Systems under Spot Market Rules

1
School of Electrical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, Jiangsu, China
2
School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4000, Australia
3
Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 15 August 2018 / Accepted: 22 August 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar and Wind Energy Forecasting)
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Abstract

Increasing penetration levels of asynchronous wind turbine generators (WTG) reduce the ability of the power system to maintain adequate frequency responses. WTG with the installation of battery energy storage systems (BESS) as wind-storage systems (WSS), not only reduce the intermittency but also provide a frequency response. Meanwhile, many studies indicate that using the dynamic droop coefficient of WSS in primary frequency control (PFC) based on the prediction values, is an effective way to enable the performance of WSS similar to conventional synchronous generators. This paper proposes a PFC for WSS with a prediction-based droop coefficient (PDC) according to the re-bid process under real-time spot market rules. Specifically, WSS update the values of the reference power and droop coefficient discretely at every bidding interval using near-term wind power and frequency prediction, which enables WSS to be more dispatchable in the view of transmission system operators (TSOs). Also, the accurate prediction method in the proposed PDC-PFC achieves the optimal arrangement of power from WTG and BESS in PFC. Finally, promising simulation results for a hybrid power system show the efficacy of the proposed PDC-PFC for WSS under different operating conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: primary frequency control; wind storage system; droop coefficient; Kalman filter; spot market primary frequency control; wind storage system; droop coefficient; Kalman filter; spot market
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Zhang, S.; Mishra, Y.; Yuan, B.; Zhao, J.; Shahidehpour, M. Primary Frequency Controller with Prediction-Based Droop Coefficient for Wind-Storage Systems under Spot Market Rules. Energies 2018, 11, 2340.

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