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Energies 2018, 11(9), 2331; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11092331

Distributed Adaptive Primal Algorithm for P2P-ETS over Unreliable Communication Links

1
School of Engineering, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD, UK
2
Faculty of Mathematics, Computing and Technology, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, UK
3
Nokia-Bell Labs, Copernicuslaan, 50, 2018 Antwerp, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 August 2018 / Revised: 30 August 2018 / Accepted: 31 August 2018 / Published: 4 September 2018
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Abstract

Algorithms for distributed coordination and control are increasingly being used in smart grid applications including peer-to-peer energy trading and sharing to improve reliability and efficiency of the power system. However, for realistic deployment of these algorithms, their designs should take into account the suboptimal conditions of the communication network, in particular the communication links that connect the energy trading entities in the energy network. This study proposes a distributed adaptive primal (DAP) routing algorithm to facilitate communication and coordination among proactive prosumers in an energy network over imperfect communication links. The proposed technique employs a multi-commodity flow optimization scheme in its formulation with the objective to minimize both the communication delay and loss of energy transactional messages due to suboptimal network conditions. Taking into account realistic constraints relating to network delay and communication link capacity between the peers, the DAP routing algorithm is used to evaluate network performance using various figures of merit such as probability of signal loss, message delay, congestion and different network topologies. Further, we address the link communication delay problem by redirecting traffic from congested links to less utilized ones. The results show that the proposed routing algorithm is robust to packet loss on the communication links with a 20% reduction in delay compared with hop-by-hop adaptive link state routing algorithm. View Full-Text
Keywords: distributed algorithm; peer-to-peer (P2P); energy trading and sharing (ETS); communication; distributed energy resources (DER); multi-commodity network; prosumer; delay; virtual microgrid (VMG) distributed algorithm; peer-to-peer (P2P); energy trading and sharing (ETS); communication; distributed energy resources (DER); multi-commodity network; prosumer; delay; virtual microgrid (VMG)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Jogunola, O.; Adebisi, B.; Anoh, K.; Ikpehai, A.; Hammoudeh, M.; Harris, G.; Gacanin, H. Distributed Adaptive Primal Algorithm for P2P-ETS over Unreliable Communication Links. Energies 2018, 11, 2331.

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