Emissions from the Road Traffic of West African Cities: Assessment of Vehicle Fleet and Fuel Consumption
Laboratoire de Physique de l’Atmophère et Mécanique des fluides, Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny, 22 BP 582 Abidjan 22, Cote d’Ivoire
Centre d’Excellence Africain sur le Changement Climatique, la Biodiversité et l’Agriculture Durable, Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny, 22 BP 582 Abidjan 22, Cote d’Ivoire
Unité de Formation et de Recherche des Sciences Biologiques, Université Péléforo Gon Coulibaly, BP 1328 Korhogo, Cote d’Ivoire
Institute of Geosciences for Environment, Université Grenoble Alpes, IRD, CNRS, Grenoble INP, F-38000 Grenoble, France
Institut de Géographie Tropicale (IGT), Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny, 01 BPV 34 Abidjan 01, Abidjan 22, Cote d’Ivoire
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Energies 2018, 11(9), 2300; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11092300
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 12 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Management in Vehicle–Grid–Traffic Nexus)
Traffic source emission inventories for the rapidly growing West African urban cities are necessary for better characterization of local vehicle emissions released into the atmosphere of these cities. This study is based on local field measurements in Yopougon (Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire) in 2016; a site representative of anthropogenic activities in West African cities. The measurements provided data on vehicle type and age, traveling time, fuel type, and estimated amount of fuel consumption. The data revealed high traffic flow of personal cars on highways, boulevards, and backstreets, whereas high flows of intra-communal sedan taxis were observed on main and secondary roads. In addition, the highest daily fuel consumption value of 56 L·day−1 was recorded for heavy vehicles, while the lowest value of 15 L·day−1 was recorded for personal cars using gasoline. This study is important for the improvement of uncertainties related to the different databases used to estimate emissions either in national or international reports. This work provides useful information for future studies on urban air quality, climate, and health impact assessments in African cities. It may also be useful for policy makers to support implementation of emission reduction policies in West African cities.