Next Article in Journal
Online Speed Estimation Using Artificial Neural Network for Speed Sensorless Direct Torque Control of Induction Motor based on Constant V/F Control Technique
Next Article in Special Issue
Hybrid PV-Wind, Micro-Grid Development Using Quasi-Z-Source Inverter Modeling and Control—Experimental Investigation
Previous Article in Journal
Combustion Characteristics and NOx Emission through a Swirling Burner with Adjustable Flaring Angle
Previous Article in Special Issue
Maximum Power Point Tracking for Brushless DC Motor-Driven Photovoltaic Pumping Systems Using a Hybrid ANFIS-FLOWER Pollination Optimization Algorithm
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Energies 2018, 11(8), 2174; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11082174

An Overview of Energy Scenarios, Storage Systems and the Infrastructure for Vehicle-to-Grid Technology

1
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Gazi University, Ankara 06500, Turkey
2
Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, 6700 Esbjerg, Denmark
3
Norway Faculty of Engineering, Østfold University College, Kobberslagerstredet 5, 1671 Kråkeroy-Fredrikstad, Norway
4
Department of Electrical Engineering & Renewable Energy, Oregon Tech, Klamath Falls, OR 97601, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 June 2018 / Revised: 7 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [1173 KB, uploaded 20 August 2018]   |  

Abstract

The increase in the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) is one of the most important problems in the world. Decreasing GHG emissions will be a big challenge in the future. The transportation sector uses a significant part of petroleum production in the world, and this leads to an increase in the emission of GHG. The result of this issue is that the population of the world befouls the environment by the transportation system automatically. Electric Vehicles (EV) have the potential to solve a big part of GHG emission and energy efficiency issues such as the stability and reliability of energy. Therefore, the EV and grid relation is limited to the Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) or Grid-to-Vehicle (G2V) function. Consequently, the grid has temporary energy storage in EVs’ batteries and electricity in exchange for fossil energy in vehicles. The energy actors and their research teams have determined some targets for 2050; hence, they hope to decrease the world temperature by 6 °C, or at least by 2 °C in the normal condition. Fulfilment of these scenarios requires suitable grid infrastructure, but in most countries, the grid does not have a suitable background to apply in those scenarios. In this paper, some problems regarding energy scenarios, energy storage systems, grid infrastructure and communication systems in the supply and demand side of the grid are reviewed. View Full-Text
Keywords: vehicle-to-grid; grid-to-vehicle; electric vehicles; batteries; harmonic distortion; IEEE Bus standards vehicle-to-grid; grid-to-vehicle; electric vehicles; batteries; harmonic distortion; IEEE Bus standards
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Harighi, T.; Bayindir, R.; Padmanaban, S.; Mihet-Popa, L.; Hossain, E. An Overview of Energy Scenarios, Storage Systems and the Infrastructure for Vehicle-to-Grid Technology. Energies 2018, 11, 2174.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top