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Energies 2018, 11(8), 2087; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11082087

Italian Experience on Electrical Storage Ageing for Primary Frequency Regulation

1
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padova, 35131 Padova, Italy
2
Terna S.p.A., Innovation Factory System Operator, Strategy Development and Dispatching, 00156 Rome, Italy
3
Terna Rete Italia S.p.A., Substation Engineering, Engineering and Asset Management, 00138 Rome, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Power and Energy System)
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Abstract

The paper describes the results of different types of ageing tests performed by Terna (the Italian Transmission System Operator) applied to several electrochemical technologies, namely lithium-based and sodium-nickel chloride-based technologies. In particular, the tested lithium-based technologies exploit a graphite-based anode and the following cathode electrochemistries: lithium iron phosphate, lithium nickel cobalt aluminium, lithium nickel cobalt manganese, and lithium titanate. These tests have been performed in the storage labs located in Sardinia (Codrongianos) and Sicily (Ciminna). The aim of the storage labs is intended to give the electrical grid ancillary services, for example, primary frequency regulation, secondary frequency regulation, voltage regulation, synthetic rotational inertia provision, and many more. For the primary frequency regulation service, the ageing of the batteries is difficult to foresee as the ageing tests are not standardized. The authors proposed some novel cycle types, which showed that, in several cases, the frequency regulation cycle ages the batteries much more than the standard cycle. The standard cycle definition has been adopted in the paper to identify a battery cycle test that was carried out to uniformly compare and rank the different technologies. Moreover, sodium-nickel chloride batteries are unaffected by the types of cycle and have a negligible ageing. In addition, lithium manganese oxide and lithium titanate batteries show very good behaviour with a slight degradation of the dischargeable energy, irrespectively of the type of cycle. Inversely, lithium nickel cobalt aluminium technology shows a considerable ageing and a strong dependence on the cycle types. Even if the theoretical explanations of such aging behaviours need time to be understood and expounded, the authors are convinced that the scientific community should become aware of these experimental results. View Full-Text
Keywords: storage lab; lithium-ion secondary batteries; sodium-nickel chloride secondary batteries; large-scale electrochemical storage; secondary battery ageing storage lab; lithium-ion secondary batteries; sodium-nickel chloride secondary batteries; large-scale electrochemical storage; secondary battery ageing
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Benato, R.; Dambone Sessa, S.; Musio, M.; Palone, F.; Polito, R.M. Italian Experience on Electrical Storage Ageing for Primary Frequency Regulation. Energies 2018, 11, 2087.

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