Next Article in Journal
MPPT and SPPT Control for PV-Connected Inverters Using Digital Adaptive Hysteresis Current Control
Previous Article in Journal
BiPAD: Binomial Point Process Based Energy-Aware Data Dissemination in Opportunistic D2D Networks
Previous Article in Special Issue
Increasing Solar Energy Usage for Dwelling Heating, Using Solar Collectors and Medium Sized Vacuum Insulated Storage Tank
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Energies 2018, 11(8), 2074;

The Efficiency of Nitrogen and Flue Gas as Operating Gases in Explosive Decompression Pretreatment

Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences, 56 Kreutzwaldi Str., 51014 Tartu, Estonia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 July 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [3007 KB, uploaded 9 August 2018]   |  


As the pretreatment process is the most expensive and energy-consuming step in the overall second generation bioethanol production process, it is vital that it is studied and optimized in order to be able to develop the most efficient production process. The aim of this paper was to investigate chemical and physical changes in biomass during the process of applying the explosive decompression pretreatment method using two different gases—N2 and synthetic flue gas. The explosive decompression method is economically and environmentally attractive since no chemicals are used—rather it is pressure that is applied—and water is used to break down the biomass structure. Both pre-treatment methods were used at different temperatures. To be able to compare the effects of the pretreatment, samples from different process steps were gathered together and analysed. The results were used to assess the efficiency of the pretreatment, the chemical and physical changes in the biomass and, finally, the mass balances were compiled for the process during the different process steps of bioethanol production. The results showed that both pre-treatment methods are effective in hemicellulose dissolution, while the cellulose content decreases to a smaller degree. The high glucose and ethanol yields were gained with both explosive pretreatment methods at 175 °C (15.2–16.0 g glucose and 5.6–9.0 g ethanol per 100 g of dry biomass, respectively). View Full-Text
Keywords: lignocellulose; pretreatment; bioethanol; second generation biofuel; mass balance lignocellulose; pretreatment; bioethanol; second generation biofuel; mass balance

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Raud, M.; Rooni, V.; Kikas, T. The Efficiency of Nitrogen and Flue Gas as Operating Gases in Explosive Decompression Pretreatment. Energies 2018, 11, 2074.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top