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Energies 2018, 11(8), 2022; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11082022

Hydrothermal Carbonization of Fruit Wastes: A Promising Technique for Generating Hydrochar

1
School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G-2W1, Canada
2
Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Guelph, ON N1G 4Y1, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 26 July 2018 / Accepted: 1 August 2018 / Published: 3 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Energy)
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Abstract

Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a useful method to convert wet biomass to value-added products. Fruit waste generated in juice industries is a huge source of moist feedstock for such conversion to produce hydrochar. This paper deals with four types of fruit wastes as feedstocks for HTC; namely, rotten apple (RA), apple chip pomace (ACP), apple juice pomace (AJP), and grape pomace (GP). The operating conditions for HTC processing were 190 °C, 225 °C, and 260 °C for 15 min. For all samples, higher heating value and fixed carbon increased, while volatile matter and oxygen content decreased after HTC. Except for ACP, the ash content of all samples increased after 225 °C. For RA, AJP, and GP, the possible explanation for increased ash content above 225 °C is that the hydrochar increases in porosity after 230 °C. It was observed that an increase in HTC temperature resulted in an increase in the mass yield for RA and GP, which is in contrast with increasing HTC temperature for lignocellulose biomass. Other characterization tests like thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) also showed that the HTC process can be successfully used to convert fruit wastes into valuable products. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrothermal carbonization; fruit waste; mass yield; energy density; characterization hydrothermal carbonization; fruit waste; mass yield; energy density; characterization
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Zhang, B.; Heidari, M.; Regmi, B.; Salaudeen, S.; Arku, P.; Thimmannagari, M.; Dutta, A. Hydrothermal Carbonization of Fruit Wastes: A Promising Technique for Generating Hydrochar. Energies 2018, 11, 2022.

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