This paper presents a model for optimal energy management under the time-of-use (ToU) and critical peak price (CPP) market in a microgrid. The microgrid consists of intermittent dispatchable distributed generators, energy storage systems, and multi-home load demands. The optimal energy management problem is a challenging task due to the inherent stochastic behavior of the renewable energy resources. In the past, medium-sized distributed energy resource generation was injected into the main grid with no feasible control mechanism to prevent the waste of power generated by a distributed energy resource which has no control mechanism, especially when the grid power limit is altered. Thus, a Jaya-based optimization method is proposed to shift dispatchable distributed generators within the ToU and CPP scheduling horizon. The proposed model coordinates the power supply of the microgrid components, and trades with the main grid to reduce its fuel costs, production costs, and also maximize the monetary profit from sales revenue. The proposed method is implemented on two microgrid operations: the standalone and grid-connected modes. The simulation results are compared with other optimization methods: enhanced differential evolution (EDE) and strawberry algorithm (SBA). Finally, simulation results show that the Jaya-based optimization method minimizes the fuel cost by up to 38.13%, production cost by up to 93.89%, and yields a monetary benefit of up to 72.78% from sales revenue.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited