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NPC Based Design Optimization for a Net Zero Office Building in Hot Climates with PV Panels as Shading Device

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Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering, Majmaah University, Majmaah 11952, Saudi Arabia
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Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Assiut University, University Street, Assiut 71515, Egypt
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2018, 11(6), 1391; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11061391
Received: 19 April 2018 / Revised: 24 May 2018 / Accepted: 28 May 2018 / Published: 30 May 2018
Hot areas of the world receive a high amount of solar radiation. As a result, buildings in those areas consume more energy to maintain a comfortable climate for their inhabitants. In an effort to design net-zero energy building in hot climates, PV possesses the unique advantage of generating electrical energy while protecting the building from solar irradiance. In this work, to form a net-zero energy building (NZEB), renewable resources such as solar and wind available onsite for an existing building have been analyzed in a hot climate location. PV and wind turbines in various configurations are studied to form a NZEB, where PV-only systems offer better performance than Hybrid PV Wind systems, based on net present cost (NPC). The self-shading losses in PV placed on rooftop areas are analyzed by placing parallel arrays of PV modules at various distances in between them. The effect on building cooling load by rooftop PV panels as shading devices is investigated. Furthermore, self-shading losses of PV are compared by the savings in cooling loads using PV as shading. In the case study, 12.3% saving in the cooling load of the building is observed when the building rooftop is completed shaded by PV panels; annual cooling load decreased from 3.417 GWh to 2.996 GWh, while only 1.04% shaded losses are observed for fully shaded (FS) buildings compared to those with no shading (NS), as PV generation decreases from 594.39 kWh/m2 to 588.21 kWh/m2. The net present cost of the project has been decreased from US$4.77 million to US$4.41 million by simply covering the rooftop completely with PV panels, for a net-zero energy building. View Full-Text
Keywords: shading effect; photovoltaic arrays; energy analysis; renewable energy resources shading effect; photovoltaic arrays; energy analysis; renewable energy resources
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Zubair, M.; Bilal Awan, A.; Al-Ahmadi, A.; Abo-Khalil, A.G. NPC Based Design Optimization for a Net Zero Office Building in Hot Climates with PV Panels as Shading Device. Energies 2018, 11, 1391.

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