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Reversible Heat Pump–Organic Rankine Cycle Systems for the Storage of Renewable Electricity

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Institute of Energy Process Engineering, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Fürther Strasse 244f, D-90429 Nürnberg, Germany
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Computer Networks and Communication Systems, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Martensstr 3, 91058 Erlangen, Germany
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Laboratory of Steam Boilers and Thermal Plants, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Heroon Polytechniou, 15780 Athens, Greece
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Institute of Process Machinery and Systems Engineering, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Cauerstr. 4, 91058 Erlangen, Germany
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Institute of Engineering Thermodynamics, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Am Weichselgarten 8, 91058 Erlangen-Tennenlohe, Germany
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2018, 11(6), 1352; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11061352
Received: 18 April 2018 / Revised: 23 May 2018 / Accepted: 24 May 2018 / Published: 25 May 2018
Storage of electricity from fluctuating renewable energy sources has become one of the predominant challenges in future energy systems. A novel system comprises the combination of a heat pump and an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) with a simple hot water storage tank. The heat pump upgrades low temperature heat with excess power. The upgraded heat can drive an Organic Rankine Process using the heat pump in reverse operation mode. This approach allows a comparably efficient storage of excess electricity. Waste heat sources usually do not qualify for electricity production even with ORC processes due to low temperatures. Upgrading the temperature of the waste heat by means of excess electricity makes the use of an ORC feasible in order to recover the electricity input. Thermodynamic cycle simulations with IPSEpro software outline that the process provides power-to-power efficiencies in a range of 50% for small-scale applications based on commercially available heat pump components. The isentropic efficiency of compressors/expanders plays a crucial role on the system performance. Applications of the proposed cycle in the megawatt range with more efficient turbines and dynamic compressors will therefore increase the power-to-power efficiency to above 70%. View Full-Text
Keywords: Organic Rankine Cycle; heat pump; electricity storage; heat storage; efficiency Organic Rankine Cycle; heat pump; electricity storage; heat storage; efficiency
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Staub, S.; Bazan, P.; Braimakis, K.; Müller, D.; Regensburger, C.; Scharrer, D.; Schmitt, B.; Steger, D.; German, R.; Karellas, S.; Pruckner, M.; Schlücker, E.; Will, S.; Karl, J. Reversible Heat Pump–Organic Rankine Cycle Systems for the Storage of Renewable Electricity. Energies 2018, 11, 1352.

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