Next Article in Journal
Numerical Study on Electrochemical Performance of Low-Temperature Micro-Solid Oxide Fuel Cells with Submicron Platinum Electrodes
Next Article in Special Issue
Investigation and Analysis of Attack Angle and Rear Flow Condition of Contra-Rotating Small Hydro-Turbine
Previous Article in Journal
Recurrent Neural Network for Partial Discharge Diagnosis in Gas-Insulated Switchgear
Previous Article in Special Issue
Assessment of Collective Production of Biomethane from Livestock Waste for Urban Transportation Mobility in Brazil and the United States
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Impacts of Decarbonisation on the Water-Energy-Land (WEL) Nexus: A Case Study of the Spanish Electricity Sector

1
Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Av. Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid, Spain
2
Chair of Renewable and Sustainable Energy Systems, Technical University Munich, Lichtenbergst. 4a, 85748 Garching bei München, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2018, 11(5), 1203; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11051203
Received: 2 February 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 27 April 2018 / Published: 9 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Nexus of Renewable Energy, Water, and Food Systems)
  |  
PDF [7916 KB, uploaded 9 May 2018]
  |  

Abstract

Over the last decades, combating climate change has been an important concern for policy makers. As a result, many policies have been designed towards this direction. Being electricity generation the focus of climate change mitigation policies, important changes are expected in this sector over the next few years as a result of the implementation of such policies. However, electricity production also generates other impacts on the water, energy and land (WEL) nexus that must be further investigated. To shed some light to this issue, this paper presents and discusses the potential impacts on the water-energy-land nexus resulting from the decarbonisation of the Spanish electricity system impacts under two different long-term scenarios. Using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach, a set of environmental impacts relevant for the nexus have been analysed for the current and future electricity generation technologies in Spain. Additionally, through the use of an optimization energy model—Times-Spain—the evolution of the electricity technologies in Spain until 2030, under two different scenarios and targets has been assessed. Taking into consideration such scenarios, the global warming, acidification, eutrophication, ecotoxicity, water consumption, resource depletion and land use impacts have been estimated. Results show that, over time, together with the decrease of greenhouse gas emission, acidification and eutrophication tend to decrease in both scenarios. On the contrary, ecotoxicity and resource use impacts tend to increase. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy systems; decarbonisation; water-energy-land nexus; LCA; scenarios energy systems; decarbonisation; water-energy-land nexus; LCA; scenarios
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lechón, Y.; De La Rúa, C.; Cabal, H. Impacts of Decarbonisation on the Water-Energy-Land (WEL) Nexus: A Case Study of the Spanish Electricity Sector. Energies 2018, 11, 1203.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top