To achieve carbon emissions control targets, policymakers often need a basket of policies to account for the complexity of abatement. The instruments in the policy mix are often interconnected. It is of great importance to study how different abatement policies perform in practice—in other words, to evaluate the effectiveness of the abatement policy mix. This paper builds a multisector partial equilibrium model and then studies the policy effectiveness using data from two energy-intensive sectors in China, namely, the iron and steel sector and the cement sector. The results show clear evidence that these policies interact, and the policy mix is not a simple aggregation but rather differs across sectors, which leads to fundamentally different scenarios in terms of energy savings, emissions reductions and production behaviors. Energy-savings subsidies can increase production and profit with a lower equilibrium level of carbon prices, whereas output-based rebating of allowances reduces production and is associated with higher carbon prices.
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