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Energies 2018, 11(12), 3410; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11123410

Electrochemical Energy Storage Potentials of Waste Biomass: Oil Palm Leaf- and Palm Kernel Shell-Derived Activated Carbons

1
Materials Synthesis and Characterisation Laboratory (MSCL), Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
2
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Federal University Dutse, Dutse 7156, Nigeria
3
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
4
Department of Chemical & Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 November 2018 / Revised: 26 November 2018 / Accepted: 3 December 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
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Abstract

In this study, activated carbons (ACs) were produced from oil palm leaves (OPL) and palm kernel shells (PKS) using different concentrations (0%, 11%, and 33%) of H3PO4 as the activating agent. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) results indicated that surface area decreases with the decreasing of the concentration of the H3PO4 in the following order: AC from oil palm leaves was (OPLAC-0% H3PO4) < (OPLAC-11% H3PO4) < (OPLAC-33% H3PO4), with the BET surface area values of 37, 760, and 780 m2/g, respectively. Similarly, the PKS-derived AC followed the same trend of (PKSAC-0% H3PO4) < (PKSAC-11% H3PO4) < (PKSAC-33% H3PO4), with the BET surface area values of 3, 52, and 1324 m2/g, respectively. Based on this finding, it was observed that H3PO4 had exhibited an influential role on enhancing the surface properties of the AC. On the contrary, it slightly decreased the graphitic trait of the AC by considering their IG/ID trends, which were generated from the Raman spectral analysis. The energy storage capacity of the AC was further tested using cyclic voltammetry. Three of the samples were found to have high capacitance values of 434 F g−1, 162 F g−1, and 147 F g−1 at 5 mVs−1. The first (434 F g−1) is much higher than the specific capacitance value (343 F g−1) of the only oil palm leaf-derived porous carbon nanoparticles ever reported in the literature. View Full-Text
Keywords: oil palm wastes; chemical activation; activated carbon; electrochemical energy storage; supercapacitor; surface area oil palm wastes; chemical activation; activated carbon; electrochemical energy storage; supercapacitor; surface area
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Nasir, S.; Hussein, M.Z.; Zainal, Z.; Yusof, N.A.; Mohd Zobir, S.A. Electrochemical Energy Storage Potentials of Waste Biomass: Oil Palm Leaf- and Palm Kernel Shell-Derived Activated Carbons. Energies 2018, 11, 3410.

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