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Energies 2018, 11(11), 3188; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11113188

Electric Vehicle Charging Strategy for Isolated Systems with High Penetration of Renewable Generation

1
Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias Agropecuarias, Universidad de las Américas-Ecuador, Quito 170122, Ecuador
2
Institute for Energy Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 Valencia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 October 2018 / Revised: 9 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Energy)
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Abstract

Inhabited islands depend primarily on fossil fuels for electricity generation and they also present frequently a vehicle fleet, which result in a significant environmental problem. To address this, several governments are investing in the integration of Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) and Electric Vehicles (EVs), but the combined integration of them creates challenges to the operation of these isolated grid systems. Thus, the aim of this paper is to propose an Electric Vehicle charging strategy considering high penetration of RES. The methodology proposes taxing CO 2 emissions based on high pricing when the electricity is mostly generated by fossil fuels, and low pricing when there is a RES power excess. The Smart charging methodology for EV optimizes the total costs. Nine scenarios with different installed capacity of solar and wind power generation are evaluated and compared to cases of uncoordinated charging. The methodology was simulated in the Galapagos Islands, which is an archipelago of Ecuador, and recognized by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as both a World Heritage site and a biosphere reserve. Simulations results demonstrate that the EV aggregator could reduce costs: 7.9% for a case of 5 MW installed capacity (wind and PV each), and 7% for a case of 10 MW installed (wind and PV each). Moreover, the use of excess of RES power for EV charging will considerably reduce CO 2 emissions.
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Keywords: electric bus; electric motorcycle; electric vehicle; microgrid; smart grid; smart charging electric bus; electric motorcycle; electric vehicle; microgrid; smart grid; smart charging
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Clairand, J.-M.; Rodríguez-García, J.; Álvarez-Bel, C. Electric Vehicle Charging Strategy for Isolated Systems with High Penetration of Renewable Generation. Energies 2018, 11, 3188.

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