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Energies 2018, 11(11), 3105; (registering DOI)

Carbon Footprint Modeling of a Clinical Lab

Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GJ, UK
Department of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0084, South Africa
CSols Ltd., The Health, Runcorn WA7 4QX, Cheshire, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 October 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 6 November 2018 / Published: 9 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Energy)
PDF [414 KB, uploaded 9 November 2018]


Modeling of a clinical lab carbon footprint is performed in this study from the aspects of electricity, water, gas consumption and waste production from lab instruments. These environmental impact indicators can be expressed in the form of the CO2 equivalent. For each type of clinical test, the corresponding consumption of energy resources and the production of plastics and papers are taken into consideration. In addition, the basic lab infrastructures such as heating, ventilation, air-conditioning (HVAC) systems, lights, and computers also contribute to the environmental impact. Human comfort is to be taken into account when optimizing the operation of lab instruments, and is related to the operation of HVAC and lighting systems. The detailed modeling takes into consideration the types of clinical tests, operating times, and instrument specifications. Two ways of disposing waste are classified. Moreover, the indoor environment is modeled. A case study of the Biochrom 30+ amino acid analyzer physiological system in Alder Hey Children’s Hospital is carried out, and the methods of mitigating the overall environmental impacts are discussed. Furthermore, the influence of climate on the results is investigated by using the climate data in Liverpool and Athens in October.
Keywords: clinical lab; carbon footprint modeling; CO2 equivalent; lab instrument; environmental impact clinical lab; carbon footprint modeling; CO2 equivalent; lab instrument; environmental impact
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ni, K.; Hu, Y.; Ye, X.; AlZubi, H.S.; Goddard, P.; Alkahtani, M. Carbon Footprint Modeling of a Clinical Lab. Energies 2018, 11, 3105.

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