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Energies 2018, 11(11), 3069; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11113069

An Improved OPP Problem Formulation for Distribution Grid Observability

1
Center of Research Excellence in Renewable Energy, Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
2
Electrical Engineering Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
3
Power and Electrical Machines Engineering Department, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11517, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 September 2018 / Revised: 25 October 2018 / Accepted: 26 October 2018 / Published: 7 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Power and Energy System)
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Abstract

Phasor measurement units (PMUs) are becoming popular and populating the power system grids rapidly due to their wide range of benefits and applications. This research paper proposes a comprehensive, effective, and revised formulation of the optimal PMU placement (OPP) problem with a view to minimizing the required number of PMU and ensuring the maximum number of measurement redundancy subjected to the full observability of the distribution grids. The proposed formulation also incorporates the presence of passive measurements/zero injection buses (ZIB) and the channel availability of the installed PMU. Additionally, the formulation is extended to various contingency cases i.e., the single line outage and single PMU loss cases. This paper solves the proposed OPP formulation employing a heuristic technique called backtracking search algorithm (BSA) and tests its effectiveness through different IEEE standard distribution feeders. Additionally, this study compares the obtained results with the mixed integer linear programming (MILP)-based approach and the referenced works. The obtained results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed formulation and solution methodology compared to other methodologies. View Full-Text
Keywords: backtracking search algorithm (BSA); channel limits; contingency; measurement redundancy; phasor measurement units (PMU); mixed integer linear programming (MILP); zero injection buses (ZIB) backtracking search algorithm (BSA); channel limits; contingency; measurement redundancy; phasor measurement units (PMU); mixed integer linear programming (MILP); zero injection buses (ZIB)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Shafiullah, M.; Abido, M.A.; Hossain, M.I.; Mantawy, A.H. An Improved OPP Problem Formulation for Distribution Grid Observability. Energies 2018, 11, 3069.

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