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Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Urban and Extra-Urban Hybrid Vehicles: A Technological Review

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Roma “Sapienza”, 00184 Roma, Italy
Energies 2018, 11(11), 2924; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11112924
Received: 12 September 2018 / Revised: 10 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 26 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10 Years Energies - Horizon 2028)
Pollution derived from transportation systems is a worldwide, timelier issue than ever. The abatement actions of harmful substances in the air are on the agenda and they are necessary today to safeguard our welfare and that of the planet. Environmental pollution in large cities is approximately 20% due to the transportation system. In addition, private traffic contributes greatly to city pollution. Further, “vehicle operating life” is most often exceeded and vehicle emissions do not comply with European antipollution standards. It becomes mandatory to find a solution that respects the environment and, realize an appropriate transportation service to the customers. New technologies related to hybrid–electric engines are making great strides in reducing emissions, and the funds allocated by public authorities should be addressed. In addition, the use (implementation) of new technologies is also convenient from an economic point of view. In fact, by implementing the use of hybrid vehicles, fuel consumption can be reduced. The different hybrid configurations presented refer to such a series architecture, developed by the researchers and Research and Development groups. Regarding energy flows, different strategy logic or vehicle management units have been illustrated. Various configurations and vehicles were studied by simulating different driving cycles, both European approval and homologation and customer ones (typically municipal and university). The simulations have provided guidance on the optimal proposed configuration and information on the component to be used. View Full-Text
Keywords: hybrid electric vehicle; series and parallel configuration; energy management; control strategies; electronic controller unit; braking energy regeneration; hybridization degree; powertrain configurations; battery package; ultracapacitor; electric motors; thermal engines; ultra-micro gas turbine; driving cycles simulations; hybrid vehicle feasibility hybrid electric vehicle; series and parallel configuration; energy management; control strategies; electronic controller unit; braking energy regeneration; hybridization degree; powertrain configurations; battery package; ultracapacitor; electric motors; thermal engines; ultra-micro gas turbine; driving cycles simulations; hybrid vehicle feasibility
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Capata, R. Urban and Extra-Urban Hybrid Vehicles: A Technological Review. Energies 2018, 11, 2924.

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