Next Article in Journal
An Improved Droop Control Strategy for Low-Voltage Microgrids Based on Distributed Secondary Power Optimization Control
Previous Article in Journal
A Design Method for Making an LCC Compensation Two-Coil Wireless Power Transfer System More Energy Efficient Than an SS Counterpart
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1351;

Probabilistic Modeling of Electric Vehicle Charging Pattern Associated with Residential Load for Voltage Unbalance Assessment

College of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
Department of Electrical Engineering, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA 01609, USA
Department of Electrical Engineering, King Saud University, Riyadh 12372, Saudi Arabia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 July 2017 / Revised: 3 August 2017 / Accepted: 7 August 2017 / Published: 7 September 2017
Full-Text   |   PDF [397 KB, uploaded 7 September 2017]   |  


It has been recognized that an increased penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) may potentially alter load profile in a distribution network. As EVs are regarded as a diversely distributed load so a deterministic method, to predict EV charging load, may not account for all possible factors that could affect the power system. Thus, a stochastic approach is applied that takes into account various realistic factors such as EV battery capacity, state of charge (SOC), driving habit/need, i.e., involving type and purpose of trip, plug-in time, mileage, recharging frequency per day, charging power rate and dynamic EV charging price under controlled and uncontrolled charging schemes. A probabilistic model of EVs charging pattern associated with residential load profile is developed. The probabilistic model gives an activity based residential load profile and EV charging pattern over a period of 24 h. Then, the model output is used to assess the power quality index such as voltage unbalance factor under different electric vehicle penetration levels at different nodes of the system. An uneven EV charging scenario is identified that could cause the voltage unbalance to exceed its permissible limit. View Full-Text
Keywords: electric vehicles; probabilistic modeling; power quality; voltage unbalance electric vehicles; probabilistic modeling; power quality; voltage unbalance

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ul-Haq, A.; Azhar, M.; Mahmoud, Y.; Perwaiz, A.; Al-Ammar, E.A. Probabilistic Modeling of Electric Vehicle Charging Pattern Associated with Residential Load for Voltage Unbalance Assessment. Energies 2017, 10, 1351.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top