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Energies 2017, 10(9), 1304;

Safety Analysis of Grounding Resistance with Depth of Water for Floating PVs

Department of Electrical Engineering, Konkuk University, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05029, Korea
Power Conversion R&D Center, LS IS Co., Ltd., LS-ro 116 beon-gil 40, Dongan-gu, Anyang-si 14118, Gyeonggi-do, Korea
Water Facility Research Center, K-Water Institute (KWI), 125, 1689 beon-gil, Yuseong-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34045, Korea
Operation & Management Team, K-Water Institute (KWI), K-Water Hapcheon Dam Office, 705, Hapcheonhosu-ro, Yongju-myeon, Hapcheon-gun 50215, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Tomonobu Senjyu
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 27 August 2017 / Accepted: 28 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
Full-Text   |   PDF [4796 KB, uploaded 1 September 2017]   |  


Underwater grounding methods could be applied in deep water for grounding a floating PV (photovoltaic) system. However, the depth at which the electrodes should be located is a controversial subject. In this study, grounding resistance was measured for the first time by analyzing the water temperature at different water depths in an area where a floating PV system is installed. The theoretical calculation of the grounding resistance has a maximum error range of 8% compared to the experimentally measured data. In order to meet the electrical safety standards of a floating PV system, a number of electrodes were connected in parallel. In addition, the distance between electrodes and number of electrodes were considered in the test to obtain a formula for the grounding resistance. In addition, the coefficient of corrosion was obtained from an electrode installed underwater a year ago, and it was added to the formula. Through this analysis, it is possible to predict the grounding resistance prior to installing the floating PV system. Furthermore, the electrical safety of the floating PV system could be achieved by considering the seasonal changes in water temperature. View Full-Text
Keywords: floating PV system; grounding resistance; electrical safety; underwater grounding floating PV system; grounding resistance; electrical safety; underwater grounding

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Ko, J.W.; Cha, H.L.; Kim, D.K.-S.; Lim, J.R.; Kim, G.G.; Bhang, B.G.; Won, C.S.; Jung, H.S.; Kang, D.H.; Ahn, H.K. Safety Analysis of Grounding Resistance with Depth of Water for Floating PVs. Energies 2017, 10, 1304.

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