- freely available
Energies 2017, 10(8), 1229; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10081229
- Solar energy is not enough alone to supply the needed energy, especially during the night and in the short gray days of winter. Moreover, according to local weather statistics, wind speed increases in winter, so that solar energy and wind energy can complement each other.
- Photovoltaic modules are not cheap, roughly 1.2 USD $/Wp, and their manufacturing technology is complicated (Wp denotes peak power and it is used in photovoltaic systems to describe the power rating of installed solar panels. The subscript is to differentiate it from measured power). Small wind turbines, in contrast, have a rather simple manufacturing technology and can be completely manufactured in Gaza. Therefore, wind turbines could have lower costs than solar panels in terms of $/W if manufactured locally. Moreover, manufacturing itself contributes to the local economy.
- Due to the high population density, Gaza city is full of high-rise residential buildings. The majority of the buildings are restricted to five floors as regulated by the local municipality. Therefore, the majority of the city areas will access unobstructed wind at nearly the same height since the land is flat. The height of the buildings of around 50 m and the installation of the turbine on a metal pole allow for wind turbines installed at higher altitudes. All of the roofs in Gaza are flat and, therefore, the installation is possible and technically stable due to the concrete building structure. Although the wind speed is not that high at low altitudes, we expect it will be more efficient at higher altitudes. This issue will be investigated deeply in our research.
- Wind turbines require less land area, which is restricted to the metal pole and, therefore, they fit the small land area of the Gaza Strip.
2. Climatic Data
3.1. Wind Harvesting System Basics
3.2. Theoretical Analysis: Wind Turbine Coefficient and Power
3.3. Wind Turbine Specification
- Output power: It fits home use as the harvested energy is in the range of the average consumption of a household;
- Price (its price is competitive compared with others);
- Operation speed (fits low speed as starts from 2.5 m/s until 15 m/s);
- Efficiency is 30.5% which is relatively good; and
- Weight and size are suitable for home installations.
3.4. Simulation Model Using TRNSYS
3.5. Extrapolation of Wind Speed to Different Heights
4. Results and Discussion
Conflicts of Interest
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|Wind Turbine Type||WTT 5000S (Small)|
|Blade diameter||3.8 m|
|Rated speed||450 rpm|
|Power at 12.5 m/s||3800 W|
|Power at 15.0 m/s||5000 W|
|Start wind speed||2.5 m/s|
|Total weight of the system||approx. 74 kg|
|Weather data||Type109-TMY2||Weather Data Reading and Processing.Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) data|
|Wind turbine||Type90||Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS). Power versus wind speed data are read in a file. The impact of air density changes and wind speed increase with height are modeled.|
|Online Plotter||online_T65||Output/Online Plotter/Online Plotter With File.|
|Printer||Type25a and Type25b/Daily and Total results||It can print with a time step that is different from the simulation time step.|
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