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Open AccessArticle

Switched Control Strategies of Aggregated Commercial HVAC Systems for Demand Response in Smart Grids

1
School of Electrical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004, China
2
Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2017, 10(7), 953; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10070953
Received: 17 April 2017 / Revised: 29 June 2017 / Accepted: 4 July 2017 / Published: 9 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Management Control)
This work proposes three switched control strategies for aggregated heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in commercial buildings to track the automatic generation control (AGC) signal in smart grid. The existing control strategies include the direct load control strategy and the setpoint regulation strategy. The direct load control strategy cannot track the AGC signal when the state of charge (SOC) of the aggregated thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) exceeds their regulation capacity, while the setpoint regulation strategy provides flexible regulation capacity, but causes larger tracking errors. To improve the tracking performance, we took the advantages of the two control modes and developed three switched control strategies. The control strategies switch between the direct load control mode and the setpoint regulation mode according to different switching indices. Specifically, we design a discrete-time controller and optimize the controller parameter for the setpoint regulation strategy using the Fibonacci optimization algorithm, enabling us to propose two switched control strategies across multiple time steps. Furthermore, we extend the switched control strategies by introducing a two-stage regulation in a single time step. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed switched control strategies can reduce the tracking errors for frequency regulation. View Full-Text
Keywords: automatic generation control (AGC); demand response; heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC); switched control; smart grid automatic generation control (AGC); demand response; heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC); switched control; smart grid
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ma, K.; Yuan, C.; Yang, J.; Liu, Z.; Guan, X. Switched Control Strategies of Aggregated Commercial HVAC Systems for Demand Response in Smart Grids. Energies 2017, 10, 953. https://doi.org/10.3390/en10070953

AMA Style

Ma K, Yuan C, Yang J, Liu Z, Guan X. Switched Control Strategies of Aggregated Commercial HVAC Systems for Demand Response in Smart Grids. Energies. 2017; 10(7):953. https://doi.org/10.3390/en10070953

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ma, Kai; Yuan, Chenliang; Yang, Jie; Liu, Zhixin; Guan, Xinping. 2017. "Switched Control Strategies of Aggregated Commercial HVAC Systems for Demand Response in Smart Grids" Energies 10, no. 7: 953. https://doi.org/10.3390/en10070953

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