- freely available
Energies 2017, 10(5), 686; doi:10.3390/en10050686
- A solar radiation simulation is conducted for the entire area considered, including parking spaces, vegetation and the surrounding built-up environment. GIS-based tools such as Area Solar Radiation on ArcGIS  or solaR on R  can be utilised with the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) datasets to estimate the amount of solar radiation on various earth surfaces within a given area. A further simulation is then conducted on the results to identify areas that are affected by shadows due to adjacent buildings or surrounding vegetation. The proportion of shadow-affected spaces in a given area is determined by two main factors, which are (a) height of surrounding buildings and their distance to the parking area and (b) latitude of the study area. Areas affected by shading are excluded from the assessment.
- In the next step, areas identified as not affected by shading are spatially analysed, identifying their shapes and main orientations. These variables are utilised in the design of carport arrangement, obtaining the optimal layout of parking lots in order to make the best use of available spaces. As car parking spaces are normally constructed in the form of arrays, their carports in a single car park are likely to be constructed with a same orientation (ΩC). This orientation is required to be tested by using existing applications such as PV-GIS  to verify whether it is appropriate for PV applications. If not, as shown in Figure 2, an alternative orientation will need to be re-proposed and repeat the GIS spatial analysis.
- The geometrics of the carport structure are then configured to identify optimal slope for PV systems. Based on orientations (ΩC) that are obtained from previous steps, existing applications such as PV-GIS are used to specify the optimal angle of the slope . In addition, as carports are regularly constructed with a back-to-back structure, their configuration needs to consider PV systems facing both directions.
- The last step is to estimate the electricity generation from potential PV-embedded on carports. The results can be used in economic analysis to assess investment requirements and payback period for the development. Such considerations can then be linked to the consumption profile of the relevant entity owning/occupying the car parking areas. This latter step will inform the project owner of the scope of energy that can be displaced by the deployed PV systems for the investments made which will allow an informed decision making process.
Testing the Methodology
3. Case Study Analysis
3.1. Saudi Arabia
3.2. Campus Characteristics and Energy Consumption
Status of Energy Consumption of the KAU Campus
3.3. Estimating Appropriate Areas for PV Deployment
3.3.1. Campus Layout
3.3.2. Shading Influence
3.3.3. Geometrics of Potential Solar Canopies
3.3.4. Available Parking Areas and Potential of PV Deployment Capacity
3.3.5. Dynamic Simulation and Energy Yield
3.3.6. Case Study Economic Assessment
3.3.7. Case Study Conclusions
4. Economic Considerations
5. Overall Conclusions
Conflicts of Interest
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|Carport Characteristics||Min||Max||Mean||Median||Standard Deviation|
|Ground Space (m2)||11.6||40.0||18.5||16.7||5.1|
|Orientation (Absolute Value)||0.1°||85.4°||38.2°||8.3°||36.5°|
|Total Car Park Area||Shaded (Cloth Canopies)||Unshaded|
|594,611 m2||400,996 m2||193,615 m2|
|Model Results||Shaded Car Parks||Unshaded Car Parks||Total|
|Mean utilisation factor||31%||50%||37%|
|Number of car ports||6772||5796 (estimated)||12,568|
|Estimated installation capacity, MWp||20.3||16.1||36.4|
|Model results||8° Southeast, ±20° Slope||83° Southwest, ±20° Slope|
|Energy yield (kWh/kWp)||south-facing||2031||1930||1848||1780|
|Expected ROI over 25 years||0%||50%||100%|
|Required export tariff||3.03||4.54||6.05|
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