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Open AccessArticle

Energy Return on Investment of Canadian Oil Sands Extraction from 2009 to 2015

1
School of Business Administration, China University of Petroleum (Beijing), Beijing 102249, China
2
Haskayne School of Business, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N1N4, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mark J. Kaiser
Energies 2017, 10(5), 614; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10050614
Received: 24 January 2017 / Revised: 24 April 2017 / Accepted: 24 April 2017 / Published: 2 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sources)
Oil sands, as unconventional oil, are so essential to both Canada and the world that special attention should be paid to their extraction status, especially their energy efficiency. One of the most commonly used methods to evaluate energy efficiency is the Energy Return on Investment (EROI) analysis. This paper focuses on EROI analysis for both in situ oil sands and mining oil sands over the period of 2009 to 2015. This time period represents an extension to periods previously considered by other analyses. An extended Input-Output model is used to quantify indirect energy input, which has been ignored by previous analyses of oil sands extraction. Results of this paper show that EROI of both mining oil sands (range of value: 3.9–8) and in situ oil sands (range of value: 3.2–5.4) display an upward trend over the past 7 years; EROI of mining oil sands is generally higher, but is more fluctuating than the EROI of in situ oil sands. Compared with EROI of other hydrocarbons, the EROI of oil sands is still quite low, despite the fact that it is increasing gradually. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy return on investment (EROI); Canadian oil sands; mining; in situ energy return on investment (EROI); Canadian oil sands; mining; in situ
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Wang, K.; Vredenburg, H.; Wang, J.; Xiong, Y.; Feng, L. Energy Return on Investment of Canadian Oil Sands Extraction from 2009 to 2015. Energies 2017, 10, 614.

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