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An Energy Aware Unified Ant Colony System for Dynamic Virtual Machine Placement in Cloud Computing

Department of Computer Science, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006, China
School of Computer Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yun Li
Energies 2017, 10(5), 609;
Received: 31 December 2016 / Revised: 16 February 2017 / Accepted: 17 February 2017 / Published: 1 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Design, Smart Manufacturing and Industry 4.0)
PDF [916 KB, uploaded 1 May 2017]


Energy efficiency is a significant topic in cloud computing. Dynamic consolidation of virtual machines (VMs) with live migration is an important method to reduce energy consumption. However, frequent VM live migration may cause a downtime of service. Therefore, the energy save and VM migration are two conflict objectives. In order to efficiently solve the dynamic VM consolidation, the dynamic VM placement (DVMP) problem is formed as a multiobjective problem in this paper. The goal of DVMP is to find a placement solution that uses the fewest servers to host the VMs, including two typical dynamic conditions of the assignment of new coming VMs and the re-allocation of existing VMs. Therefore, we propose a unified algorithm based on an ant colony system (ACS), termed the unified ACS (UACS), that works on both conditions. The UACS firstly uses sufficient servers to host the VMs and then gradually reduces the number of servers. With each especial number of servers, the UACS tries to find feasible solutions with the fewest VM migrations. Herein, a dynamic pheromone deposition method and a special heuristic information strategy are also designed to reduce the number of VM migrations. Therefore, the feasible solutions under different numbers of servers cover the Pareto front of the multiobjective space. Experiments with large-scale random workloads and real workload traces are conducted to evaluate the performance of the UACS. Compared with traditional heuristic, probabilistic, and other ACS based algorithms, the proposed UACS presents competitive performance in terms of energy consumption, the number of VM migrations, and maintaining quality of services (QoS) requirements. View Full-Text
Keywords: dynamic virtual machine placement (DVMP); ant colony system (ACS); energy saving; cloud computing dynamic virtual machine placement (DVMP); ant colony system (ACS); energy saving; cloud computing

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Liu, X.-F.; Zhan, Z.-H.; Zhang, J. An Energy Aware Unified Ant Colony System for Dynamic Virtual Machine Placement in Cloud Computing. Energies 2017, 10, 609.

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