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Energies 2017, 10(3), 317;

Wind Farm Wake: The 2016 Horns Rev Photo Case

Department of Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark
DONG Energy A/S, Kraftværksvej 53, 7000 Fredericia, Denmark
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Frede Blaabjerg
Received: 22 December 2016 / Revised: 24 February 2017 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 7 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Wind Turbines)
PDF [8722 KB, uploaded 13 March 2017]


Offshore wind farm wakes were observed and photographed in foggy conditions at Horns Rev 2 on 25 January 2016 at 12:45 UTC. These new images show highly contrasting conditions regarding the wind speed, turbulence intensity, atmospheric stability, weather conditions and wind farm wake development as compared to the Horns Rev 1 photographs from 12 February 2008. The paper examines the atmospheric conditions from satellite images, radiosondes, lidar and wind turbine data and compares the observations to results from atmospheric meso-scale modelling and large eddy simulation. Key findings are that a humid and warm air mass was advected from the southwest over cold sea and the dew-point temperature was such that cold-water advection fog formed in a shallow layer. The flow was stably stratified and the freestream wind speed was 13 m/s at hub height, which means that most turbines produced at or near rated power. The wind direction was southwesterly and long, narrow wakes persisted several rotor diameters downwind of the wind turbines. Eventually mixing of warm air from aloft dispersed the fog in the far wake region of the wind farm. View Full-Text
Keywords: wind farm wake; fog; wake modelling; meteorological conditions wind farm wake; fog; wake modelling; meteorological conditions

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Hasager, C.B.; Nygaard, N.G.; Volker, P.J.H.; Karagali, I.; Andersen, S.J.; Badger, J. Wind Farm Wake: The 2016 Horns Rev Photo Case. Energies 2017, 10, 317.

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