Next Article in Journal
Optimum Design and Operation of an HVAC Cooling Tower for Energy and Water Conservation
Previous Article in Journal
An Active Power Filter Based on a Three-Level Inverter and 3D-SVPWM for Selective Harmonic and Reactive Compensation
Open AccessArticle

Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Urban Leaf Litter Designated for Combustion

Department of Grassland Science and Renewable Plant Resources, Kassel University, Steinstrasse 19, 37213 Witzenhausen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Khanh-Quang Tran and Øyvind Skreiberg
Energies 2017, 10(3), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030298
Received: 10 January 2017 / Revised: 21 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass Combustion for Heat and Power Generation)
Vast amounts of leaf litter have to be disposed of by city administrations. This biomass has the potential for energy conversion, but contamination with pollutants can adversely affect this usage. We investigated leaf litter samples from the city of Kassel by analyzing their heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations. Leaf samples were indeed contaminated with heavy metals and PAHs and contamination was influenced by provenience and collection technique. A simple cleaning system of washing and subsequent mechanical dewatering significantly reduced heavy metal concentration. Regression models were developed for contamination with heavy metals which showed that contamination could be successfully estimated using the total ash content of the sample as a predictor, with an R2 of up to 0.77. It can be concluded that leaf litter from cities is a possible feedstock for energetic conversion, provided a cleaning step is applied. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioenergy; municipal; contamination; leaves; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons bioenergy; municipal; contamination; leaves; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Nitsche, M.; Nurmatov, N.; Hensgen, F.; Wachendorf, M. Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Urban Leaf Litter Designated for Combustion. Energies 2017, 10, 298. https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030298

AMA Style

Nitsche M, Nurmatov N, Hensgen F, Wachendorf M. Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Urban Leaf Litter Designated for Combustion. Energies. 2017; 10(3):298. https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030298

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nitsche, Meike; Nurmatov, Nodirjon; Hensgen, Frank; Wachendorf, Michael. 2017. "Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Urban Leaf Litter Designated for Combustion" Energies 10, no. 3: 298. https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030298

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop