Next Article in Journal
Approach to Hybrid Energy Storage Systems Dimensioning for Urban Electric Buses Regarding Efficiency and Battery Aging
Next Article in Special Issue
Supercritical Water Gasification of Biomass in a Ceramic Reactor: Long-Time Batch Experiments
Previous Article in Journal
Risk-Based Bi-Level Model for Simultaneous Profit Maximization of a Smart Distribution Company and Electric Vehicle Parking Lot Owner
Previous Article in Special Issue
Co-Digestion of Napier Grass and Its Silage with Cow Dung for Methane Production
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Biodiesel from Mandarin Seed Oil: A Surprising Source of Alternative Fuel

School of Engineering and Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne VIC 3000, Australia
Energies 2017, 10(11), 1689;
Received: 1 October 2017 / Accepted: 20 October 2017 / Published: 26 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioenergy and Biofuel)
Mandarin (Citrus reticulata) is one of the most popular fruits in tropical and sub-tropical countries around the world. It contains about 22–34 seeds per fruit. This study investigated the potential of non-edible mandarin seed oil as an alternative fuel in Australia. The seeds were prepared after drying in the oven for 20 h to attain an optimum moisture content of around 13.22%. The crude oil was extracted from the crushed seed using 98% n-hexane solution. The biodiesel conversion reaction (transesterification) was designed according to the acid value (mg KOH/g) of the crude oil. The study also critically examined the effect of various reaction parameters (such as effect of methanol: oil molar ratio, % of catalyst concentration, etc.) on the biodiesel conversion yield. After successful conversion of the bio-oil into biodiesel, the physio-chemical fuel properties of the virgin biodiesel were measured according to relevant ASTM standards and compared with ultra-low sulphur diesel (ULSD) and standard biodiesel ASTM D6751. The fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) using the EN 14103 standard. The behaviour of the biodiesel (variation of density and kinematic viscosity) at various temperatures (10–40 °C) was obtained and compared with that of diesel fuel. Finally, mass and energy balances were conducted for both the oil extraction and biodiesel conversion processes to analyse the total process losses of the system. The study found 49.23 wt % oil yield from mandarin seed and 96.82% conversion efficiency for converting oil to biodiesel using the designated transesterification reaction. The GC test identified eleven FAMEs. The biodiesel mainly contains palmitic acid (C16:0) 26.80 vol %, stearic acid (C18:0) 4.93 vol %, oleic acid (C18:1) 21.43 vol % (including cis. and trans.), linoleic acid (C18:2) 4.07 vol %, and less than one percent each of other fatty acids. It is an important source of energy because it has a higher heating value of 41.446 MJ/kg which is close to ULSD (45.665 MJ/kg). In mass and energy balances, 49.23% mass was recovered as crude bio-oil and 84.48% energy was recovered as biodiesel from the total biomass. View Full-Text
Keywords: mandarin seed oil; biodiesel; transesterification; fatty acid methyl esters; mass and energy balance mandarin seed oil; biodiesel; transesterification; fatty acid methyl esters; mass and energy balance
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Azad, A.K. Biodiesel from Mandarin Seed Oil: A Surprising Source of Alternative Fuel. Energies 2017, 10, 1689.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop