Complementary Currencies for Humanitarian Aid
2. Why Try Something New?
2.1. Unconditional Cash Transfers
2.2. Vouchers or Conditional Cash Transfers
“… a paper, token or e-voucher that can be exchanged for a set quantity or value of goods or services, denominated either as a cash value (e.g., $15) or predetermined commodities (e.g., 5 kg maize) or specific services (e.g., milling of 5 kg of maize), or a combination of value and commodities. … They are redeemable with preselected vendors or in ‘fairs’ created by the implementing agency”.
2.3. Complementary Currency Systems
3. Backward and Forward Production Linkages
- backward linkages: demand-side stimuli, formed when a new activity, e.g., import replacement, generates effective demand for local inputs, making viable (new) upstream activities that feed into it by supplying inputs.
- forward linkages: supply-side stimuli formed when new activities emerge downstream as a result of a plant or business coming into operation, and intermediate goods become available for local producers that previously did not exist.
4. Community Currencies in Kenya
4.1. A Short History
4.2. Real Trade Network
“We always save money in our table banking group [chama] and then exchange it for Sarafu. Everyone gets a share according to their savings. All our phones always have Sarafu which we use for various uses; to buy food and supplies for my pastry business”.—Female, Kinango Kwale
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
https://www.grassrootseconomics.org/about (accessed on 27 July 2021).
https://innovation.wfp.org/project/building-blocks (accessed on 27 July 2021).
https://www.unicef.org/press-releases/unicef-launches-cryptocurrency-fund (accessed on 27 July 2021).
https://www.unicef.org/innovation/stories/grantee-macro-eyes (accessed on 27 July 2021).
In the Berkshires of Massachusetts local banks will sell 100 Berkshares for 95 USD, and buy 95 USD for 100 Berkshares. https://centerforneweconomics.org/apply/local-currencies-program/#BerkShares (accessed on 27 July 2021).
https://www.community-exchange.org/ (accessed on 27 July 2021).
https://www.sardexpay.net/ (accessed on 27 July 2021).
For example the Hudson Valley CC in the United States converts its currency into business advertising in a local newspaper (see Ussher et al. 2019).
The complicated history of GE and its CCs is summarized in this section with a focus on the CC design and its integration with humanitarian donor foundations. More details can be found in the papers cited and on the GE website https://www.grassrootseconomics.org/research (accessed on 27 July 2021).
Regardless of how good intentions might be, such wealth transfers are common among mutual credits that fail to match trades and exclude the option of conversion as discussed above in Section 2.3. This is true regardless of whether they begin with a balance of zero or some positive number. At some point all platforms are forced to clear their imbalances else/when their membership stops growing.
Despite being named in honor of Keynes’s famous international multilateral clearing proposal of 1941, which failed to be implemented at Bretton Woods, the Bancor protocol and its Bonding curve design could only be described as a distant cousin. However, it did have a multilateral clearing currency that was separate from each community currency. Imbalances, rather than being remedied by Keynes’ ‘fixed but adjustable exchange rates’, had programmable continuous exchange rates via a bonding curve that would adjust to balance trade deficits and surpluses (for details regarding the bonding curve see Hertzog et al. 2018).
Like gold or bitcoin, the creation (or mining) of crypto currencies have equity rather than debt as their balance sheet counterpart.
This paper for the most part is focused on transactions between members and chamas, and excludes data analysis of financial transactions or the impact of exchange rate fluctuations in the 2019 period, leaving this to future research. More specifics on the entire ecosystem can be found at https://grassrootseconomics.org/blog (accessed on 27 July 2021).
See Ruddick (2020a) CIC white paper https://gitlab.com/grassrootseconomics/cic-docs/-/blob/master/CIC-White-Paper.pdf (accessed on 27 July 2021).
All the data analysis in Section 4 combines time series for both the 2018/2019 POA blockchain data and the 2020/21 xDai blockchain data. We have excluded all: transfers that are disbursements and conversions or reclamations; business-types that are system, administration, or enrolment agents; smart contract transactions during the POA period; and members with missing region-types presumed to be one of the prior entities. Data included are ‘standard’ transactions that are assumed to be in exchange for real goods or services by the CC members (‘beneficiaries’) and chamas (‘group accounts’). The only caveat is that individual saving deposits and withdrawals with chamas which are not in exchange for goods or services, have not been removed even though they would be considered an internal financial transfer. The full dataset (Ruddick 2021) and its description are available at https://reshare.ukdataservice.ac.uk/855142/ (accessed on 27 July 2021).
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https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG?locations=KE (accessed on 27 July 2021).
Several new blockchains have been piloted by Grassroots Economics, but due to erratic fees (gas) a future move is planned to the bloxberg.org blockchain. Bloxberg is an Ethereum Virtual Machine—Proof of Authority blockchain developed and run by universities and research organizations like the Max Planck Digital Library.
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|Approx. Dates||Regist. Users||Type||Token(s)||Main Actors & Technology||Official Exchange to National Currency|
|2010–2011||100||Convertible Aid + Payments||Eco-Pesa|
|Convertible into KSh (monthly limits)|
Promise of reciprocity
|Bangla-Pesa + Multiple Local Currencies||Community Business Groups + GE,|
Paper money with expiration date
|Not convertible into KSh. Reciprocity enforced through cancellation of the currency after one year.|
Promise of reciprocity
|Community Business Cooperatives + GE,|
Paper money with expiration date
|Cooperative Business Profits and Donor Aid used to purchase selective ‘excess balances’|
|2019||20,000||Producer Credit + Aid (airdrop)||Bangla Token + Multiple Digital Tokens||Business Cooperatives + Chamas + GE,|
Blockchain + Bonding Curve
|Select vendors could sell a percentage of their balance with an upper limit. Conversion with a bonding curve safeguard with M-Pesa Agents.|
|2020–2021||30,000||Producer Credit + Aid (airdrop) + rewards/demurrage||Sarafu|
|Business Cooperatives + Chamas + GE,|
|Donor purchases in KSh of 50% Sarafu balance from selected chama’s (once a month).|
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Ussher, L.; Ebert, L.; Gómez, G.M.; Ruddick, W.O. Complementary Currencies for Humanitarian Aid. J. Risk Financial Manag. 2021, 14, 557. https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm14110557
Ussher L, Ebert L, Gómez GM, Ruddick WO. Complementary Currencies for Humanitarian Aid. Journal of Risk and Financial Management. 2021; 14(11):557. https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm14110557Chicago/Turabian Style
Ussher, Leanne, Laura Ebert, Georgina M. Gómez, and William O. Ruddick. 2021. "Complementary Currencies for Humanitarian Aid" Journal of Risk and Financial Management 14, no. 11: 557. https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm14110557