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Article

Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Percentage May Predict Chemotolerance and Survival in Patients with Advanced Pancreatic Cancer. Association between Adaptive Immunity and Nutritional State

1
Department of Biology and Biotechnology “Lazzaro Spallanzani”, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy
2
Medical Oncology Division, Fondazione IRCCS, Policlinico San Matteo, 27100 Pavia, Italy
3
Department of Biomedical Engineering of the Montescano Institute, Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri IRCCS, 27040 Montescano, Italy
4
Department of Drug Sciences, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the research.
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(5), 3280-3296; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28050285
Received: 15 July 2021 / Revised: 22 August 2021 / Accepted: 23 August 2021 / Published: 26 August 2021
Alterations of the immune system that consist of induced inflammation and reduction in blood lymphocytes are a major factor contributing to cancer progression in patients with pancreatic carcinoma (PC). Identification of the percentage of lymphocytes in the Total number of White Blood Cells (L% TWBC) that could be associated with chemotolerance and survival time may be important for predicting treatment efficacy. The aim of this retrospective study was to highlight the best value of L% for predicting chemotolerance (n° of cycles tolerated) and survival beyond 12 months from diagnosis. The study found that L ≥ 29.7% TWBC compared to L < 29.7% predicted chemotolerance (p < 0.0001) and survival at every time point of follow-up: 6 (p = 0.04), 12 (p = 0.0003) and 18 months (p = 0.004) after diagnosis. Simple, rapid, routine laboratory data can be useful to predict treatment tolerance and efficacy in PC patients.
Pancreatic Carcinoma (PC) cells have the ability to induce patient immunosuppression and to escape immunosurveillance. Low circulating lymphocytes are associated with an advanced stage of PC and reduced survival. Blood lymphocytes expressed as a percentage of Total White Blood Cells (L% TWBC) could predict chemotolerance (n° of tolerated cycles), survival time and Body Weight (BW) more effectively than lymphocytes expressed as an absolute value (LAB > 1500 n°/mm3) or lymphocytes >22%, which is the lowest limit of normal values in our laboratory. Forty-one patients with advanced PC, treated with chemotherapy, were selected for this observational retrospective study. Patients were evaluated at baseline (pre-chemotherapy), and at 6, 12 and 18 months, respectively, after diagnosis of PC. The study found L ≥ 29.7% to be a better predictor of survival (COX model, using age, sex, BW, serum creatinine, bilirubin and lymphocytes as covariates), chemotolerance (r = +0.50, p = 0.001) and BW (r = +0.35, p = 0.027) than LAB > 1500 or L > 22%. BW did not significantly correlate with chemotolerance or survival. The preliminary results of this study suggest that L ≥ 29.7% is more effective than LAB > 1500 or L > 22% at predicting chemotolerance, survival time and nutritional status. A possible impact of nutritional status on chemotherapy and survival seems to be lymphocyte-mediated given the association between BW and L%. This study may serve as the basis for future research to explore whether nutritional interventions can improve lymphopenia, and if so, how this may be possible. View Full-Text
Keywords: advanced pancreatic cancer; impaired adaptive immune response; chemotolerance; survival; nutritional status advanced pancreatic cancer; impaired adaptive immune response; chemotolerance; survival; nutritional status
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MDPI and ACS Style

Aquilani, R.; Brugnatelli, S.; Maestri, R.; Boschi, F.; Filippi, B.; Perrone, L.; Barbieri, A.; Buonocore, D.; Dossena, M.; Verri, M. Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Percentage May Predict Chemotolerance and Survival in Patients with Advanced Pancreatic Cancer. Association between Adaptive Immunity and Nutritional State. Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28, 3280-3296. https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28050285

AMA Style

Aquilani R, Brugnatelli S, Maestri R, Boschi F, Filippi B, Perrone L, Barbieri A, Buonocore D, Dossena M, Verri M. Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Percentage May Predict Chemotolerance and Survival in Patients with Advanced Pancreatic Cancer. Association between Adaptive Immunity and Nutritional State. Current Oncology. 2021; 28(5):3280-3296. https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28050285

Chicago/Turabian Style

Aquilani, Roberto, Silvia Brugnatelli, Roberto Maestri, Federica Boschi, Beatrice Filippi, Lorenzo Perrone, Annalisa Barbieri, Daniela Buonocore, Maurizia Dossena, and Manuela Verri. 2021. "Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Percentage May Predict Chemotolerance and Survival in Patients with Advanced Pancreatic Cancer. Association between Adaptive Immunity and Nutritional State" Current Oncology 28, no. 5: 3280-3296. https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28050285

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