Improving Well-Being in Young Adults: A Social Marketing Proof-of-Concept
1.1. Co-Creating the Well-Being Program
1.2. Applying Theory to the Well-Being Program
1.3. Implementing the Well-Being Program
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Baseline Survey
2.2. Follow-Up Survey
2.3. In-Depth Interviews
3.1. Evaluation of Changes in Knowledge, Skill and Environmental Support
3.2. Evaluation of Well-Being Behavior Change
3.3. Evaluation of Well-Being Areas
3.4. Evaluation of Participant Experiences
“I thought it was really cool to see that the content was based on scientific resources, as well as being taught by someone who had experienced everything himself.”—28-year-old, Dutch male, working full time.
“I liked the structure of the course and that it includes a video, and then an exercise to really implement the teachings.”—28-year-old, Dutch male, working full time.
“I love how short the lessons are and that it’s broken up with the little clips. I really can’t think of any tips to better your delivery so far.”—34-year-old, Australian female, self-employed.
“I catch myself when this device [smartphone] is distracting me. And I know how to alter it, so it serves me rather than I serve it.”—30-year-old, Dutch female, unemployed
“I was able to spend less time online, and more time in the real world.”—29-year-old, Australian male, self-employed.
“I can study whenever, wherever I want”—31-year-old, Spanish female, working full time [about the mobile app].
“The lessons helped me to manage my time and control my habits. I engaged in a digital declutter and already started to regain my focus.”—28-year-old, Dutch male, working full time [about the digital declutter].
“I could really see a transformation. I’ve become more compassionate and kinder towards others, and I try to be more nurturing and caring toward other people.”—29-year-old, Finnish female, Student.
“Now I have a morning routine, which has helped me be regular in my meditation practice, which is one of the things I value most. This transformation has affected not just my morning but my whole day. I feel I have more energy than before. I get more done in my day and I feel more fulfilled in my life.”—23-year-old, British female, working part time.
“It would’ve been better if access to the program would be revoked after a while, so I’m more pushed to engage with the material.”—33-year-old, Australian female, working part time.
“Nobody chased me to complete the course and that’s why I probably didn’t feel the urge to continue at some point.”—31-year-old, Spanish female, working full time.
4.1. Monitoring and Evaluating a Theory-Driven Social Marketing Intervention
4.2. Assessing the Utility of Social Cognitive Theory in Social Marketing Interventions
4.3. Dynamic Monitoring and Agile Tweaking
4.4. Limitations and Future Research
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
Appendix A. Survey Measures
Appendix A.1. Well-Being Behaviors
- I know the benefits of reducing my screen time.
- I have the skills to reduce my screen time.
- My environment (including my smartphone, etc.) enables me to reduce my screen time.
- I know the benefits of engaging in quality leisure activities.
- I have the skills to engage in quality leisure activities.
- My environment enables me to engage in quality leisure activities.
- I know the benefits of doing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.
- I have the skills to do moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.
- My environment enables me to do moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.
- I know the benefits of engaging in physical relaxation.
- I have the skills to engage in physical relaxation.
- My environment enables me to engage in physical relaxation.
- I know the benefits of high-quality sleep.
- I have the skills to improve the quality of my sleep.
- My environment enables me to enjoy high-quality sleep.
- I know the benefits of meditation.
- I have the skills to meditate.
- My environment enables me to meditate.
Appendix A.2. Well-Being Outcomes
- It does not take me long to recover from a stressful event.
- I usually come through difficult times with little trouble.
- I tend to bounce back quickly after hard times.
- Maintaining close relationships has been difficult and frustrating for me. (R)
- People would describe me as a giving person, willing to share my time with others.
- I have not experienced many warm and trusting relationships with others. (R)
- I was finding it difficult to stay focused on what was happening.
- I was doing something without paying attention.
- I was rushing through something without being really attentive to it.
- I felt unable to control the important things in my life. (R)
- I felt confident about my ability to handle your personal problems.
- I felt difficulties were piling up so high that I could not overcome them. (R)
- I felt that things were going my way.
- I understand my life’s meaning.
- My life has a clear sense of purpose.
- I have a good sense of what makes my life meaningful.
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|Program Progress||Average Pre- and Post-Program Change Rates |
|Purpose and |
|23-year-old, British female, working part time||100%||68%||2.3||4.7||2.7||5.0||1.7||3.7||2.3||4.0||4.3||5.0|
|28-year-old, Dutch male, working full time||100%||45%||3.3||4.0||3.3||4.7||1.7||4.0||2.8||3.8||2.3||3.0|
|29-year-old, Finnish female, student||90%||26%||3.3||3.7||4.3||5.0||1.7||3.3||3.3||4.3||3.0||3.3|
|30-year-old, Dutch female, unemployed||87%||36%||3.3||4.0||3.7||5.0||2.0||3.0||1.7||3.0||4.0||5.0|
|31-year-old, Spanish female, working full time||65%||24%||1.7||2.7||3.3||4.0||2.0||3.0||3.0||3.8||4.0||4.0|
|34-year-old, Australian female, self-employed||55%||28%||3.7||3.3||4.3||4.7||1.0||2.3||2.3||3.8||3.7||5.0|
|24-year-old, Australian Male, working full-time||50%||17%||4.0||4.3||5.0||4.3||2.7||3.3||1.7||2.6||3.0||4.5|
|29-year-old, Australian male, self-employed||43%||18%||3.7||3.7||3.7||4.3||1.7||2.3||2.3||3.5||4.0||4.3|
|33-year-old, Australian female, working part time||33%||24%||3.3||4.0||1.3||3.3||3.0||3.0||4.0||4.3||3.3||4.0|
|42-year-old, Australian female, working full time||33%||14%||1.0||1.0||2.0||2.0||1.0||2.0||2.0||2.0||1.0||1.0|
|47-year-old, Dutch male, working full time||28%||7%||3.7||4.0||3.3||3.7||3.7||4.0||3.8||4.0||4.0||4.0|
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van Hierden, Y.; Rundle-Thiele, S.; Dietrich, T. Improving Well-Being in Young Adults: A Social Marketing Proof-of-Concept. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 5248. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095248
van Hierden Y, Rundle-Thiele S, Dietrich T. Improving Well-Being in Young Adults: A Social Marketing Proof-of-Concept. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(9):5248. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095248Chicago/Turabian Style
van Hierden, Yannick, Sharyn Rundle-Thiele, and Timo Dietrich. 2022. "Improving Well-Being in Young Adults: A Social Marketing Proof-of-Concept" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 9: 5248. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095248