Understanding Factors to COVID-19 Vaccine Adoption in Gujarat, India
1.1. Vaccine Hesitancy
1.2. Factors Related to Vaccine Hesitancy
1.3. Vaccination Campaign and Status in India
3.1. Low Uptake of Vaccines
“I already had corona once. Now, we are safe at least for three to four months. We have antibodies in our body, so we do not need to take the vaccination”.(participant 7)
“I have heard all this kind of news of vaccine inefficacy. I do have hesitancy and fear. You will not believe it; I have not even taken a test to check whether I have corona or not till today! So, forget about the vaccine”.(participant 27)
3.2.1. Religious Influence
“Religion will play a role. See, the thing is that Indians are quite religious. We always bring religious sentiments when eating food or wearing dresses like Western culture dresses. Also, I feel that many people would not prefer to have it (the vaccine) based on religious sentiments”.(participant 14)
Influence of Religious Leaders
“If religious leaders are educated about the vaccination process, they will educate the local people or their community and explain to them the importance of vaccine”.(participant 18)
Ingredients of Vaccine and Religious Sentiments
“When it comes to vaccine ingredients, it will not matter to me what is inside the dose. For example, we are given medicine like cough syrup when we have an illness. It contains alcohol (which is haram), but we overlook this aspect. We take medicines regularly, so we cannot claim that we have not taken alcohol. I will take the vaccine as vaccine and avoid thinking about this aspect”.(participant 42)
“The main reason I am apprehensive about the vaccine is that I do not know exactly what is in the vaccine. I will accept it only if the ingredients are halal (and not haram)”.(participant 6)
3.2.2. Emphasis on Family
“When it comes to children, one has to be very careful as they have a long life ahead. It will be a big problem if some major side effect happens. The first thing is to consult a doctor, make sure that they are mentally and physically capable of taking the vaccines, only then the vaccine should be given to them”.(participant 25)
“Yes, elders should go for vaccination because their immune system is not strong. Also, many of them have other diseases and co-morbidities. The doctor’s advice is vital before taking the vaccine in such cases”.(participant 14)
“I feel like old people should go for the vaccination, but if they have some other major disease like high blood pressure, diabetes or cancer, then they need to think twice, and for the same, they should take the advice from their family doctor first”.(participant 17)
“Young people should go for vaccination because they are the main sources of spreading. Since they travel to different places for professional and personal reasons, they meet many people who might be the carriers of the virus”.(participant 19)
3.2.3. Political Leadership
“Our honorable prime minister of India, as well as the chief minister of Delhi, have taken the vaccine, and hence people are influenced to follow suit. People felt assured that they took vaccinations as they were certain about their effects. Thus, personally taking the vaccine and suggesting others do the same will significantly influence creating a positive attitude towards the vaccine. Celebrities and politicians generally have a strong influence on people”.(participant 8)
3.2.4. The Role of Government
“Yes, the government (across India) has undertaken sufficient initiatives to guide people; they have created awareness about vaccines using local languages like Gujarati, Hindi, Marathi and that too in layman’s terms. They have even put a caller tune of around 30 s to spread awareness about taking vaccines when the slots are available. Sometimes it was irritating, but they have used it positively to influence people by delivering necessary information”.(participant 12)
“From Rajkot municipality corporation, a team of three people including a doctor used to come to our home at a regular interval to check about our health condition. They used to bring the COVID test kit, and if found positive, they would provide free basic medicine”.(participant 40)
“As my daughter was found COVID positive, she returned for a few days from her in-law’s family. She told me, every Tuesday and Friday, she used to get a call from the local municipality to check about her health”.(participant 37)
- to control the spread of misinformation both online and offline
- to provide vital information to the masses, especially to those located in rural areas and the weaker sections
- to increase the supply of vaccines to private hospitals for easy access
- to provide data of state-wise measures taken in the country
- to ensure transparency concerning the vaccination process
- to provide vaccines to private corporate employees as a priority
- to collaborate with NGOs and other service provider organizations, and
- to bring transparency by sharing vaccination data
3.2.5. Willingness to Pay
“I paid for my parents’ vaccination. My reason was not safety or hygiene or anything like that. My reason was that I did not want to burden the government with additional 500 rupees”.(participant 28)
“If I am supposed to take the vaccine, I will pay for it because I can afford it. US $7 for two shots is fine. The genuine reason for not going to the government health center is that if I give up my vaccine shot, a needy person can get that shot, and they will not have to pay for it. As I can afford it, so I can get it from a private hospital”.(participant 43)
3.2.6. The Role of Misinformation
“There are stories related to vaccine floating around saying that if we take the vaccine, then our genetic makeup changes. We are surrounded by a lot of misinformation about the vaccine because we do not have 100% information related to the vaccine”.(participant 30)
3.2.7. The Role of Fear
“My grandmother and my mother both have blood pressure and diabetics. I insisted they go for vaccination, but they were concerned about what would happen after taking the vaccine. That is why they were hesitant”.(participant 15)
“I am afraid because as we are young. I do not think corona will easily enter our body if we take care. Because of the lockdown, we have already improved our health. So, I do not feel the need for the vaccine because it may instead cause damage”.(participant 4)
“When I have a health problem, I choose Ayurveda medicine since my brother’s wife, brother-in-law, and father-in-law are all ayurvedic physicians. Only ayurvedic medicines are used to treat illnesses in our family, and I am fearful of other drugs”.(participant 7)
4. How Do Our Findings Compare with the Rest of the World?
5. Discussion, a Review of Government Efforts, and Recommendations
6. Limitations and Future Research
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|A||Set of demographics details|
|B||Set of main questions|
|1||What are your views about the COVID vaccine?|
|2||What have you heard about the vaccine from various sources?|
|3||Do you have any hesitancy or fear regarding taking the vaccine?|
|4||Have you taken or would you take the vaccine? Why or why not?|
|5||What about your family members? Will you allow them to take the vaccine? [Emphasize both on children and elders, also try to find if they have co-morbidities]|
|6||What do you think is the role of religion in the acceptance of the COVID vaccine? For example, the role of religious leaders or halal? Do you know of anyone who has opted not to take the vaccine due to religious reasons?|
|7||What is your opinion on the effectiveness of the vaccine?|
|8||What is the role of misinformation in vaccine hesitancy?|
|9||What steps should be taken be taken to remove misinformation?|
|10||Do you think the government has taken sufficient measures to communicate the vaccine’s effectiveness?|
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|Age||18–25 years||9 (21%)|
|26–35 years||16 (36%)|
|36–45 years||14 (32%)|
|46–55 years||4 (9%)|
|56–65 years||1 (2%)|
|Not Stated||2 (5%)|
|Level of education||Less than 10th grade||8 (18%)|
|High school||2 (5%)|
|Working Status||Academics: Teaching staff||21 (48%)|
|Academics: Non-teaching staff||5 (11%)|
|Corporate job||2 (5%)|
|Coaching class counsellor||1 (2%)|
|Coaching class teacher||1 (2%)|
|Fashion designer||1 (2%)|
|Street hawker||1 (2%)|
|Marital Status||Married||29 (66%)|
|Prefer not to say||2 (5%)|
|City in Gujarat||Rajkot||37 (84%)|
|Vadodara (Baroda)||1 (2%)|
|Major Factors||Northern America||Europe||Oceania||Latin America and the Caribbean||Asia|
|Country||USA||Germany||Canada||UK||Australia||Brazil||Saudi Arabia||Thailand||Japan||India (Current Study)|
|Eligible population (million) and % of population given at least one dose of vaccine (accessed on 27 November 2021) ||200|
|1||Religious influence||Rigoli , Graves ||-||Rigoli ||Edwards, Biddle, Gray and Sollis , Smith et al. ||-||Wong et al. , Huda E. Zainudin et al. , Padhi and Al-Mohaithef ||Pakkawan ||Lahav et al. ||Yes|
|2||Emphasis on family members||Khubchandani et al. ||-||Mant et al. , Lazarus et al. ||Lazarus, Wyka, Rauh, Rabin, Ratzan, Gostin, Larson and El-Mohandes ||-||Lazarus, Wyka, Rauh, Rabin, Ratzan, Gostin, Larson and El-Mohandes ||-||-||Yoda and Katsuyama ||Yes|
|3||Political leadership||Khubchandani, Sharma, Price, Wiblishauser, Sharma and Webb ||-||Griffith et al. ||BBC news , Mirza ||Ministers Department of Health ||Burki , Fonseca et al. , Lancet  Marcello and Boadle ||Reuters Staff ||-||Kosaka et al. ||Yes|
|4||The role of government||The White House ||Holzmann-Littig et al. ||Public Health Agency of Canada , ||The White House ||Australian Government , Bennett , Australian Government , Freckelton Qc ||The Tribune , Reuters ||Al-Mohaithef et al. , Ani ||Rattanachaikunsopon and Phumkhachorn , Namwat et al. ||Kosaka, Hashimoto, Ozaki, Tanimoto and Kami , Hayes ||Yes|
|5||Willingness to pay||Wong et al. , Catma and Reindl , Godói et al. ||Sprengholz et al. ||Wong, Alias, Wong, Lee and AbuBakar ||Borriello et al. ||Kitro et al. ||-||-||-||Yes|
|6||The role of misinformation||Evanega et al. , Loomba et al. ||-||Desveaux et al. ||Loomba, de Figueiredo, Piatek, de Graaf and Larson  Lewsey , OECD ||Rozbroj et al. , Taylor , Pickles et al. .||Coletiva.net ||Alasmari et al. ||Mongkhon et al. ||Freckelton Qc , Nomura et al. ||Yes|
|7||The role of fear||Trent et al. , Kirzinger et al. ||Bauernfeind et al. ||Griffith, Marani and Monkman , Mant, Aslemand, Prine and Jaagumägi Holland ||Iyengar et al. ||Rhodes et al. , BBC News , The New Indian Express , Yoda and Katsuyama ||Moore et al. ||Padhi and Al-Mohaithef ||Thanapluetiwong et al. ||Nomura, Eguchi, Yoneoka, Kawashima, Tanoue, Murakami, Sakamoto, Maruyama-Sakurai, Gilmour, Shi, Kunishima, Kaneko, Adachi, Shimada, Yamamoto and Miyata , Okubo et al. , Yoda and Katsuyama ||Yes|
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Tolia, V.; Renin Singh, R.; Deshpande, S.; Dave, A.; Rathod, R.M. Understanding Factors to COVID-19 Vaccine Adoption in Gujarat, India. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 2707. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19052707
Tolia V, Renin Singh R, Deshpande S, Dave A, Rathod RM. Understanding Factors to COVID-19 Vaccine Adoption in Gujarat, India. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(5):2707. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19052707Chicago/Turabian Style
Tolia, Viral, Rajkumar Renin Singh, Sameer Deshpande, Anupama Dave, and Raju M. Rathod. 2022. "Understanding Factors to COVID-19 Vaccine Adoption in Gujarat, India" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 5: 2707. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19052707