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Article

Spatial Convergence of Carbon Productivity: Theoretical Analysis and Chinese Experience

by 1, 2, 2,* and 2
1
Center for Northeast Asian Studies, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China
2
Northeast Asian Studies College, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Weiwu Wang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4606; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084606
Received: 26 February 2022 / Revised: 30 March 2022 / Accepted: 8 April 2022 / Published: 11 April 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Plan and Environmental Policy)
Based on the neoclassical framework, we propose the convergence hypothesis of carbon productivity under sustainable growth and prove the different effects of knowledge spillover and technology diffusion on convergence. The convergence hypothesis is tested using China’s provincial spatial dynamic panel data from 1995 to 2019. The results show that China’s provincial carbon productivity has conditional convergence and club convergence characteristics. The convergence speed of dynamic panel regression estimation is greater than that of cross-sectional regression. The convergence rate of dynamic spatial panel regression estimation is faster depending on the spatial spillover difference between the two technologies. In the early stage, the provincial spatial dependence of China’s carbon productivity is mainly knowledge spillover, and the convergence rate is lower than that of the closed economy. Over the past decade, the spatial spillover, dominated by low-carbon technology diffusion, has become the dominant force. The convergence rate is significantly faster than that of a non-spatial-dependent economy. In addition, the mechanism test found that the development of energy efficiency dominates the spatial transfer of technology, so the overall convergence of carbon productivity in China mainly comes from the apparent convergence of energy efficiency in provinces and cities. Our conclusion provides a new reference for the emission reduction actions of countries worldwide because the spatial knowledge spillover carried by capital flows is not conducive to the pursuit of carbon productivity in less developed regions. On the contrary, the dissemination and diffusion of low-carbon technologies can significantly reduce carbon equivalent input in the production process, accelerating the pursuit of developing countries or regions. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon productivity; convergence hypothesis; fixed effect; spatial effect carbon productivity; convergence hypothesis; fixed effect; spatial effect
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sun, M.; Zhang, Y.; Hu, Y.; Zhang, J. Spatial Convergence of Carbon Productivity: Theoretical Analysis and Chinese Experience. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 4606. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084606

AMA Style

Sun M, Zhang Y, Hu Y, Zhang J. Spatial Convergence of Carbon Productivity: Theoretical Analysis and Chinese Experience. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(8):4606. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084606

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sun, Meng, Yue Zhang, Yaqi Hu, and Jiayi Zhang. 2022. "Spatial Convergence of Carbon Productivity: Theoretical Analysis and Chinese Experience" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 8: 4606. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084606

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