Scoping Review of Peer-Led Support for People Bereaved by Suicide
Aims of the Review
3. Data Extraction and Analysis
4. Quality Appraisal and Quality of the Studies
5.1. Study Characteristics
5.2. Participant Characteristics
5.3. How Peer and Peer Support Is Conceptualised and Defined
5.4. Type of Peer Interventions Evaluated
5.5. Outcomes of the Intervention
5.6. Aspects of Intervention Which Enhanced Outcomes
5.7. Aspects of Intervention Which Hindered Outcomes
5.8. Recommendations for the Practice of Peer Support Made by the Authors of the Studies Included
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
- World Health Organization (WHO). LIVE LIFE: An Implementation Guide for Suicide Prevention in Countries; WHO: Geneva, Switzerland, 2021; Available online: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240026629 (accessed on 24 January 2022).
- Roth, G.A.; Abate, D.; Abate, K.H.; Abay, S.M.; Abbafati, C.; Abbasi, N.; Abbastabar, H.; Abd-Allah, F.; Abdela, J.; Abdelalim, A.; et al. Global, regional, and national age-sex-specific mortality for 282 causes of death in 195 countries and territories, 1980–2017: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet 2018, 392, 1736–1788. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Cerel, J.; Brown, M.M.; Maple, M.; Singleton, M.; van de Venne, J.; Moore, M.; Flaherty, C. How Many People Are Exposed to Suicide? Not Six. Suicide Life Threat. Behav. 2019, 49, 529–534. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Cerel, J.; McIntosh, J.L.; Neimeyer, R.A.; Maple, M.; Marshall, D. The continuum of “survivorship”: Definitional issues in the aftermath of suicide. Suicide Life Threat. Behav. 2014, 44, 591–600. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- McDaid, C.; Trowman, R.; Golder, S.; Hawton, K.; Sowden, A. Interventions for people bereaved through suicide: Systematic review. Br. J. Psychiatry J. Ment. Sci. 2008, 193, 438–443. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Linde, K.; Treml, J.; Steinig, J.; Nagl, M.; Kersting, A. Grief interventions for people bereaved by suicide: A systematic review. PLoS ONE 2017, 12, e0179496. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Pitman, A.; Osborn, D.; King, M.; Erlangsen, A. Effects of suicide bereavement on mental health and suicide risk. Lancet Psychiatry 2014, 1, 86–94. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Spillane, A.; Matvienko-Sikar, K.; Larkin, C.; Corcoran, P.; Arensman, E. What are the physical and psychological health effects of suicide bereavement on family members? An observational and interview mixed-methods study in Ireland. BMJ Open 2018, 8, e019472. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Grafiadeli, R.; Glaesmer, H.; Hofmann, L.; Schäfer, T.; Wagner, B. Suicide risk after suicide bereavement: The role of loss-related characteristics, mental health, and hopelessness. J. Psychiatr. Res. 2021, 144, 184–189. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Jordan, J.R. Postvention is prevention—The case for suicide postvention. Death Stud. 2017, 41, 614–621. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- World Health Organization. Public Health Action for the Prevention of Suicide: A Framework. 2012. Available online: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/75166 (accessed on 12 October 2021).
- World Health Organization. Preventing Suicide: A Global Imperative. 2014. Available online: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789241564779 (accessed on 12 October 2021).
- Department of Health (Irl). Connecting for Life: Ireland’s National Strategy to Reduce Suicide 2015–2020; Department of Health: Dublin, Ireland, 2015.
- Department of Health (UK). 2012 Preventing Suicide in England: A Cross-Government Outcomes Strategy to Save Lives; Department of Health: London, UK, 2012.
- Aguirre, R.T.P.; Slater, H. Suicide Postvention as Suicide Prevention: Improvement and Expansion in the United States. Death Stud. 2010, 34, 529–540. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- National Institute of Health and Care Excellence. Suicide Prevention Quality Standard [QS189]. 2019. Available online: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/qs189(accessed on 24 February 2022).
- Rawlinson, D.; Schiff, J.W.; Barlow, C.A. A review of peer support for suicide bereavement as a postvention alternative. Curr. Scholarsh. Hum. Serv. 2009, 8, 1–20. [Google Scholar]
- Szumilas, M.; Kutcher, S. Post-suicide intervention programs: A systematic review. Can. J. Public Health/Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique 2011, 102, 18–29. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bartone, P.T.; Bartone, J.V.; Violanti, J.M.; Gileno, Z.M. Peer Support Services for Bereaved Survivors: A Systematic Review. Omega 2019, 80, 137–166. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Andriessen, K.; Krysinska, K.; Hill, N.; Reifels, L.; Robinson, J.; Reavley, N.; Pirkis, J. Effectiveness of interventions for people bereaved through suicide: A systematic review of controlled studies of grief, psychosocial and suicide-related outcomes. BMC Psychiatry 2019, 19, 49. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Schlichthorst, M.; Ozols, I.; Reifels, L.; Morgan, A. Lived experience peer support programs for suicide prevention: A systematic scoping review. Int. J. Ment. Health Syst. 2020, 14, 65. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bowersox, N.W.; Jagusch, J.; Garlick, J.; Chen, J.I.; Pfeiffer, P.N. Peer-based interventions targeting suicide prevention: A scoping review. Am. J. Community Psychol. 2021, 68, 232–248. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sanford, R.L.; Cerel, J.; Frey, L.M. Survivor of Suicide Loss Support Group Facilitators: Do Peers and Professionals Differ? Soc. Work Groups 2017, 41, 306–322. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Arksey, H.; O’Malley, L. Scoping studies: Towards a methodological framework. Int. J. Soc. Res. Methodol. 2005, 8, 19–32. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Thomas, B.H.; Ciliska, D.; Dobbins, M.; Micucci, S. A process for systematically reviewing the literature: Providing the research evidence for public health nursing interventions. Worldviews Evid. Based Nurs. 2004, 1, 176–184. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bailey, E.; Krysinska, K.; O’Dea, B.; Robinson, J. Internet Forums for Suicide Bereavement. Crisis 2017, 38, 393–402. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Barlow, C.A.; Schiff, J.W.; Chugh, U.; Rawlinson, D.; Hides, E.; Leith, J. An evaluation of a suicide bereavement peer support program. Death Stud. 2010, 34, 915–930. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Feigelman, B.; Feigelman, W. Surviving After Suicide Loss: The Healing Potential of Suicide Survivor Support Groups. Illn. Crisis Loss 2008, 16, 285–304. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Feigelman, W.; Gorman, B.S.; Beal, K.C.; Jordan, J.R. Internet support groups for suicide survivors: A new mode for gaining bereavement assistance. Omega 2008, 57, 217–243. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Feigelman, B.; Feigelman, W. Suicide Survivor Support Groups: Comings and Goings, Part II. Illn. Crisis Loss 2011, 19, 165–185. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hopmeyer, E.; Werk, A. A comparative study of family bereavement groups. Death Stud. 1994, 18, 243–256. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ali, F.; Lucock, M. It’s like getting a group hug and you can cry there and be yourself and they understand’. Family members’ experiences of using a suicide bereavement peer support group. Bereavement 2020, 39, 51–58. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Tosini, D.; Fraccaro, D. “Like climbing a glass wall”: Suicide survivors in an Italian province. Death Stud. 2020, 1–9. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hagström, A.S. ‘Suicide stigma’ renegotiated: Storytelling, social support and resistance in an Internet-based community for the young suicide-bereaved. Qual. Soc. Work. 2016, 16, 775–792. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Schotanus-Dijkstra, M.; Havinga, P.; Van Ballegooijen, W.; Delfosse, L.; Mokkenstorm, J.; Boon, B. What do the bereaved by suicide communicate in online support groups? A content analysis. Crisis 2014, 35, 27–35. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Council of Australian Governments Health Council. The Fifth National Mental Health and Suicide Prevention Plan. 2017. Available online: http://www.coaghealthcouncil.gov.au/Portals/0/Fifth%20National%20Mental%20Health%20and%20Suicide%20Prevention%20Plan.pdf (accessed on 24 January 2022).
- Health Education England. Stepping Forward to 2020/21: The Mental Health Workforce Plan for England. 2017. Available online: https://www.basw.co.uk/system/files/resources/basw_62959-3_0.pdf (accessed on 24 January 2022).
- Stratford, A.C.; Halpin, M.; Phillips, K.; Skerritt, F.; Beales, A.; Cheng, V.; Hammond, M.; O’Hagan, M.; Loreto, C.; Tiengtom, K.; et al. The growth of peer support: An international charter. J. Ment. Health 2019, 28, 627–632. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Department of Health. Sharing the Vision: A Mental Health Policy for Everyone. 2020. Available online: https://www.gov.ie/en/publication/2e46f-sharing-the-vision-a-mental-health-policy-for-everyone/ (accessed on 24 January 2022).
- Wainwright, V.; Cordingley, L.; Chew-Graham, A.C.; Kapur, N.; Shaw, J.; Smith, S.; McGale, B.; McDonnell, S. Experiences of support from primary care and perceived needs of parents bereaved by suicide: A qualitative study. Br. J. Gen. Pr. 2020, 70, e102–e110. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Ross, V.; Kõlves, K.; De Leo, D. Exploring the Support Needs of People Bereaved by Suicide: A Qualitative Study. Omega 2019, 82, 632–645. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Rennick-Egglestone, S.; Ramsay, A.; McGranahan, R.; Llewellyn-Beardsley, J.; Hui, A.; Pollock, K.; Repper, J.; Yeo, C.; Ng, F.; Roe, J.; et al. The impact of mental health recovery narratives on recipients experiencing mental health problems: Qualitative analysis and change model. PLoS ONE 2019, 14, e0226201. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Public Health England. Support after A Suicide: A Guide to Providing Local Services National Suicide Prevention Alliance Supported by A Practice Resource.Public Health England. 2016. Available online: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/590838/support_after_a_suicide.pdf (accessed on 24 February 2022).
- Scottish Government Health Directorate. Shaping Bereavement Care. A Framework for Action. 2011. Available online: http://www.sehd.scot.nhs.uk/mels/CEL2011_09 (accessed on 12 October 2021).
- Support after Suicide Partnership and the National Bereavement Alliance. Guidelines for Delivering Bereavement Support Groups 2019. Available online: https://nationalbereavementalliance.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/SASP-NBA-Guidelines-booklet.pdf (accessed on 24 February 2022).
- Stroebe, M.; Stroebe, W.; Schut, H. Gender Differences in Adjustment to Bereavement: An Empirical and Theoretical Review. Rev. Gen. Psychol. 2001, 5, 62–83. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
|i. Empirical studies using any research design|
|ii. Studies focusing on peer-led interventions|
|iii. Target population -people bereaved by suicide|
|iv. Conducted in any country, location, and setting, and using any modes of delivery (online, face to face, phone etc.)|
|v. Reported on any outcomes (e.g., feasibility, acceptability, effectiveness etc.)|
|i. Descriptive or theoretical papers focused on a peer intervention without evaluation findings|
|ii. Studies focused on evaluating peer interventions for bereavement (including bereavement by suicide) where it was not possible to extract information specific to bereavement by suicide|
|iii. Studies of interventions for bereavement (including bereavement by suicide) where there was a co-facilitation element by a professional|
|iv. Literature reviews, systematic reviews, discussion papers, opinion articles/editorials, commentaries, book chapters, conference papers, and case studies (n = 1).|
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Higgins, A.; Hybholt, L.; Meuser, O.A.; Eustace Cook, J.; Downes, C.; Morrissey, J. Scoping Review of Peer-Led Support for People Bereaved by Suicide. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 3485. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19063485
Higgins A, Hybholt L, Meuser OA, Eustace Cook J, Downes C, Morrissey J. Scoping Review of Peer-Led Support for People Bereaved by Suicide. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(6):3485. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19063485Chicago/Turabian Style
Higgins, Agnes, Lisbeth Hybholt, Olivia A. Meuser, Jessica Eustace Cook, Carmel Downes, and Jean Morrissey. 2022. "Scoping Review of Peer-Led Support for People Bereaved by Suicide" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 6: 3485. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19063485