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Relationships of Nutritional Factors and Agrochemical Exposure with Parkinson’s Disease in the Province of Brescia, Italy

1
School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, 20090 Monza, Italy
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Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA
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Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, University of Brescia, 25123 Brescia, Italy
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Department of Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA
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Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia, 25123 Brescia, Italy
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Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health and Social Work, Florida International University, Miami, FL 11200, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(6), 3309; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19063309
Received: 18 December 2021 / Revised: 28 February 2022 / Accepted: 8 March 2022 / Published: 11 March 2022
Environmental exposures to agrochemicals and nutritional factors may be associated with Parkinson’s Disease (PD). None of the studies to date has examined the combined effects of diet and agricultural chemical exposure together. To address these research gaps, we aimed to assess the association of nutritional factors and agrochemical exposure with the risk of PD. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to estimate the association of nutritional and agrochemical exposures with PD, adjusting for gender, age, socio-economic status, head injury, family history, smoking, metals exposure, and α-synuclein gene polymorphism. Weighted Quantile Sum (WQS) regression was applied to examine the effect of dietary components as a mixture. We recruited 347 cases and 389 controls. Parent history of PD (OR = 4.15, 95%CI: 2.10, 8.20), metals exposure (OR = 2.50, 95%CI: 1.61–3.89), SNCA rs356219 polymorphism (OR = 1.39, 95%CI: 1.04–1.87 for TC vs. TT; OR = 2.17, 95%CI: 1.43–3.28 for CC vs. TT), agrochemical exposures (OR = 2.11, 95%CI: 1.41–3.16), and being born in the Brescia province (OR = 1.83, 95%CI: 1.17–2.90) were significantly associated with PD. Conversely, fish intake and coffee consumption had a protective effect. The study confirmed the role of environmental exposures in the genesis of PD. Fish intake and coffee consumption are protective factors even when agricultural chemical exposures exist. Genetic factors and metals exposure were confirmed as risk factors for PD. View Full-Text
Keywords: Parkinson’s Disease; agricultural chemical exposure; nutritional factors; metals exposure; SNCA polymorphism Parkinson’s Disease; agricultural chemical exposure; nutritional factors; metals exposure; SNCA polymorphism
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MDPI and ACS Style

Belingheri, M.; Chiu, Y.-H.M.; Renzetti, S.; Bhasin, D.; Wen, C.; Placidi, D.; Oppini, M.; Covolo, L.; Padovani, A.; Lucchini, R.G. Relationships of Nutritional Factors and Agrochemical Exposure with Parkinson’s Disease in the Province of Brescia, Italy. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 3309. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19063309

AMA Style

Belingheri M, Chiu Y-HM, Renzetti S, Bhasin D, Wen C, Placidi D, Oppini M, Covolo L, Padovani A, Lucchini RG. Relationships of Nutritional Factors and Agrochemical Exposure with Parkinson’s Disease in the Province of Brescia, Italy. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(6):3309. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19063309

Chicago/Turabian Style

Belingheri, Michael, Yueh-Hsiu M. Chiu, Stefano Renzetti, Deepika Bhasin, Chi Wen, Donatella Placidi, Manuela Oppini, Loredana Covolo, Alessandro Padovani, and Roberto G. Lucchini. 2022. "Relationships of Nutritional Factors and Agrochemical Exposure with Parkinson’s Disease in the Province of Brescia, Italy" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 6: 3309. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19063309

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