Next Article in Journal
Public Water Policy Knowledge and Policy Preferences in the American West
Next Article in Special Issue
Relationships among Sports Group Cohesion, Psychological Collectivism, Mental Toughness and Athlete Engagement in Chinese Team Sports Athletes
Previous Article in Journal
Midlife Urinary Phthalate Metabolite Concentrations and Prior Uterine Fibroid Diagnosis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Anthropometric, Physiological, and Psychological Variables That Determine the Elite Pistol Performance of Women
 
 
Article

Biological, Psychological, and Physical Performance Variations in Football Players during the COVID-19 Lockdown: A Prospective Cohort Study

1
Department of Biological and Environmental Science and Technologies (Di.S.Te.B.A.), University of Salento, 73100 Lecce, Italy
2
Sport and Exercise Sciences Research Unit, Department of Psychology, Educational Science and Human Movement, University of Palermo, 90144 Palermo, Italy
3
Life Quality Research Center (CIEQV), Sport Sciences School of Rio Maior, Polytechnic Institute of Santarém, 2000-044 Santarem, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 2739; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19052739
Received: 2 February 2022 / Revised: 23 February 2022 / Accepted: 24 February 2022 / Published: 26 February 2022
This prospective cohort study aimed to evaluate whether COVID-19 lockdown caused biological, psychological, and/or physical performance variations in footballers. We compared the 2018/2019 and 2019/2020 seasons evaluating the plasma volume, hematological parameters, iron/ferritin, creatine kinase, vitamin D, cortisol, testosterone, and physiological state of players of the Italian football major league (Serie A). Measurements were performed before the preparatory period (T0), at the beginning (T1) and in the middle (T2) of the championship, and in March (T3) and at the end of season (T4). The results showed that in the 2019/2020 season affected by the lockdown, the weight, BMI, and fat mass percentage were higher than in the previous season. Hematocrit, hemoglobin, red blood cells, and ferritin decreased during both seasons, more significantly than in the regular season. During both seasons, creatine kinase increased from T2 whilst iron concentrations decreased in T3. Testosterone increased in both seasons from T0 to T3 and returned to initial levels at T4; cortisol increased in T2 and T3 during the 2018/2019 season but not during the COVID-19 season. Physical performance tests revealed differences associated with lockdown. Thus, although from a medical point of view, none of the evaluated changes between the two seasons were clinically relevant, training at home during lockdown did not allow the players to maintain the jumping power levels typical of a competitive period. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19 lockdown; hematological parameters; psychological stress; cortisol; testosterone; physical performance; football; Serie A COVID-19 lockdown; hematological parameters; psychological stress; cortisol; testosterone; physical performance; football; Serie A
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

My, G.; Marsigliante, S.; Bianco, A.; Zangla, D.; Silva, C.M.d.; Muscella, A. Biological, Psychological, and Physical Performance Variations in Football Players during the COVID-19 Lockdown: A Prospective Cohort Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 2739. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19052739

AMA Style

My G, Marsigliante S, Bianco A, Zangla D, Silva CMd, Muscella A. Biological, Psychological, and Physical Performance Variations in Football Players during the COVID-19 Lockdown: A Prospective Cohort Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(5):2739. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19052739

Chicago/Turabian Style

My, Giulia, Santo Marsigliante, Antonino Bianco, Daniele Zangla, Carlos Marques da Silva, and Antonella Muscella. 2022. "Biological, Psychological, and Physical Performance Variations in Football Players during the COVID-19 Lockdown: A Prospective Cohort Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 5: 2739. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19052739

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop